Chapter 9 Agriculture
Key Issue #1 Where Did Agriculture Originate?
Origins of Agriculture • Agriculture = deliberate modification of Earth’s surface through the cultivation of plants and/or rearing of animals • Cultivate = “to care for” • Crop = any plant cultivated by people • Hunter-gatherers • Perhaps 250,000 remaining today • Invention of agriculture • When it began = unclear • Diffused from many hearths
Crop Hearths Figure 10-2
Animal Hearths Figure 10-3
Agricultural Workers Figure 10-5
Area of Farmland Per Tractor Figure 10-6
Agriculture and Climate Figure 10-4
The Worst Mistake in History of the Human Race By Jared Diamond The article can be accessed on my teachers website. After reading answer the following question for tomorrow in a paragraph, “What does Jared Diamond argue is the worst mistake in human history?” You must have three pieces of evidence from the article to support your answer. You must restate the prompt in the topic sentence so it is clear what you are writing about.
Key Issue #2 Where Are Agricultural Regions in Less Developed Countries?
Where are Agricultural Regions in LDCs? • Shifting cultivation • Most prevalent in low-latitude, A-type climates • Two features: • Land is cleared by slashing and burning debris • Slash-and-burn agriculture • Land is tended for only a few years at a time • Types of crops grown vary regionally • Traditionally, land is not owned individually • soil erosion a problem • most often occurs in tropical rainforest regions-SE Asia, Central Africa, Brazil
The slash-and-burn process creates ashes that provide nutrients to the soil. • The cleared area is known by many names, such as swidden, ladang, milpa, chena, and kaingin. • This process supports crops 3 yrs or less. • Crops include maize (corn), manioc (cassava/tapioca), millet, sorghum, yams, sugarcane, plantain, sweet potatoes, rice, papaya, pineapple, mango, cotton, beans, etc.
Subsistence farmers • Kayapo • extensive subsistence, shifting ag • Mali • Intensive subsistence • sorghum, pearl millet, and maize
Where are Agricultural Regions in LDCs? • Pastoral nomadism (herding domesticated animals) • Found primarily in arid and semiarid B-type climates • Animals are seldom eaten • The size of the herd indicates power and prestige • Type of animal depends on the region • For example, camels are favored in North Africa and Southwest Asia. Sheep and goats are next. • Transhumance practiced by some pastoral nomads
Where are Agricultural Regions in LDCs? • Intensive subsistence • Found in areas with high population and agricultural densities • Especially in East, South, and Southeast Asia • To maximize production, little to no land is wasted • Intensive with wet rice dominant • The flooded field is called a sawah or a paddy (which actually means “wet rice”). • Intensive with wet rice not dominant • Crops like wheat or barley, millet, oats, soybeans, or cash crops like cotton or flax.
Rice Production Figure 10-12
Corn (Maize) Production Figure 10-15
Key Issue #3 Where Are Agricultural Regions in More Developed Countries?
Agricultural Regions (MDCs) • Mixed crop and livestock farming • Livestock fed with crops grown on same farm, ¾ of the income is from sale of animal products • Involves crop rotation which helps maintain fertility of land, common products are corn & soybeans
AG REGIONS • Dairy farming • Primarily in NE US, SE Canada, NW Europe • 60% of the world’s milk comes from these areas • Must be close to their market area because it is highly perishable
Milk Productionhttps://www.tillamook.com/our-story/history.html Figure 10-17
Agricultural Regions (MDCs) • Grain farming • The largest commercial producer of grain is the United States (KS, CO, OK, MT, WA, Dakotas) • Livestock ranching • Practiced in marginal environments (US, Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Australia) • Mediterranean agriculture • Based on horticulture-fruits, veggies, flowers • Commercial gardening and fruit farming • Truck farms (“truck” literally means barter or exchange)-fruits and veggies sold to consumers or processors
Wheat Production Figure 10-19
Agricultural Regions (MDCs) • Plantation farming • growing crops in subsistence areas for sale in more developed countries • **often occurs in less developed countries • usually involves the production of one crop • common in many tropical areas, like Latin America, Africa, & Asia. Equator Crops • Examples: bananas, sugarcane, coffee, tea, cocoa, cotton, rubber, palm oil, etc.
Sugarcane 3 2 1
Key Issue #4 Why Do Farmers Face Economic Difficulties?
Challenges for commercial farmers • Access to markets is important • The von Thünen model (1826) • The choice of crop to grow is related to the proximity to the market Figure 10-24
Challenges for commercial cont.. • Overproduction • Agricultural efficiencies have resulted in overproduction • Demand has remained relatively constant • As a consequence, incomes for farmers are low • Sustainable agriculture • Sensitive land management • Integrated crop and livestock
Challenges for subsistence farmers • Population growth • Boserup thesis-pop growth compels subsistence farmers to consider new farming approaches that produce enough food to take care of additional people. • Increase food supply by leaving land fallow for shorter time periods and adopting new methods • International trade • To be successful, LDCs need to grow crops people in MDCs want (coffee, tea, cocoa) • Drug crops • South America-cocaine, marijuana • Afghanistan, Myanmar, Laos-opium/heroin
Drug Trade Figure 10-27
Strategies to increase food supply • Expanding agricultural land • Desertification-the Sahel • Increasing productivity • The green revolution (1970s-80s) • Introduction of higher-yield seeds and use of fertilizers • Identifying new food sources • Cultivating oceans, developing higher-protein cereals, and improving palatability of foods • Increasing trade
Agricultural Land and Population Figure 10-28
Grain Imports and Exports Figure 10-32
Future of Agriculture: • Explore and explain two advantages and disadvantages of • companies like Monsanto for the agricultural industry? • 2) Explore and explain two advantages and disadvantages of • the use of Genetically Modified Organisms? • Cite your sources, due Wednesday, 2/13/18