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Integumentary System . Nicole Monsalve. What is the Integumentary System?. The Integumentary system is the skin, the hair, sweat glands , and the nails. Its main job is to protect our body from the outside world. It is also responsible for: - storing water and fat

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integumentary system

Integumentary System

Nicole Monsalve

what is the integumentary system
What is the Integumentary System?
  • The Integumentary system is the skin, the hair, sweat glands , and the nails.
  • Its main job is to protect our body from the outside world.
  • It is also responsible for:
  • - storing water and fat
  • - help dispose waist materials
  • - protecting the body from changes in temperature
  • - protecting the body from dehydration
  • - acting as a receptor for touch, pressure, and pain
the skin
The Skin
  • The skin is the largest organ in the body.
  • Makes up 16% of body weight and has a surface area of 1.8m2.
  • Its function is to form a barrier to the environment.
  • Limits the passage of water in our body, as well as electrolytes and various substances.
  • It also provides protection against micro-organisms, UV radiation, toxic agents, and mechanical insults.
  • Consists of three layers:
  • - epidermis
  • - dermis
  • - subcutaneous
the epidermis
The Epidermis
  • The outer layer of the skin.
  • Its function is to form a waterproof barrier over the body.
  • Thickness varies in different types of skin
  • -thinnest: eyelids
  • - thickest: palms and soles
  • The cells that make up the epidermis are:
  • -keratinocytes
  • -melanocytes
  • -epidermal dendric
  • -tactile
the dermis
The Dermis
  • Second layer of the skin.
  • It is found under the epidermis.
  • It varies in thickness ranging from:
  • -thinnest: eyelids
  • - thickest: palms and soles
  • Is composed of a tough, supportive cell matrix.
subcutaneous layer
Subcutaneous Layer
  • The third layer of the skin.
  • It contains all the fat and connective tissue.
  • Contains large blood vessels and nerves.
  • This layer regulates the temperature of the whole body.
the hair
The Hair

Traps air around the body that acts like an insulating layer

Hairs that appear in the form of eyelashes keep out dust particles.

The hair consists of four parts:

- cuticle



the cuticle
The Cuticle
  • Covers the hair fiber
  • Responsible for making the hair shine and protecting the inner structure
  • Consists of four layers:
  • - Epicuticle: makes cuticle resistant to chemical attacks
  • - A-layer: makes the hair resistant to chemical and physical attacks
  • - Exocuticle: provides toughness to the cuticle
  • - Endocuticle: swells in water causing the cuticle to stand out
the cortex
The Cortex
  • Occupies 75% of the hair
  • Consists of swindle shaped cells separated by the CMS of the cortex
  • Mostly made up of keratin protein
the medulla
The Medulla
  • Present in the center of the fiber.
  • Contains hollow spaces filled with air.
the nail
The Nail
  • Hard layers of keratinized cells that form like epidermis
  • The function is to protect the tips of your toes and fingers.
  • It is made up of epidermal cells that give rise to the cells that die to make up nails and hair.
structure of the nail
Structure of the Nail
  • Nail Plate: the visible portion of the nail that sits on top of the nail bed.
  • Lunula: the moon shaped point where the matrix and the nail bed meet.
  • Cuticle: the overlapping skin surrounding the nail. Its purpose is to protect the matrix from invading bacteria and physical damage.
  • Matrix: this is where the nail is made. It is the only living part of the nail and it contains nerves and blood vessels so that cell reproduction can occur.
sweat glands
Sweat Glands
  • The function is to respond to elevated body temperature due to environmental heat or physical exercise.
  • Responsible for moisture on the palms or soles when you are stressed.
  • Most common on the forehead, neck, and back where they produce sweat to cool your body.
  • There are two types of sweat glands:
  • - Eccrine gland
  • - Apocrine gland
eccrine gland
Eccrine Gland
  • Sweat glands that are not connected to hair follicles.
  • Common on the forehead, neck, and back where they produce sweat.
  • Provide moisture when a person is emotionally stressed.
apocrine gland
Apocrine Gland
  • Found mainly in the axillaries and public areas of the body.
  • The ducts of apocrine sweat glands extend to the follicles of the hair so that the sweat produced exits the body along the hair shaft.
  • They are inactive till puberty at which point they produce an oily liquid that is consumed by bacteria living on the skin.
  • When the bacteria digests the apocrine sweat glands body odor is produced.
diseases of the integumentary system
Diseases of the Integumentary System
  • Chickenpox: it is a disease causing a mild fever and a rash of itchy inflamed blisters. It mainly affects children who are afterward really immune.
  • - Cause: the varicella-zoster virus
  • - Symptoms: blisters will start to form. Fever, sore throat, stomachaches, headaches, and coughing will occur during the out break of the blisters.
  • - Treatment: lukewarm baths, regular applications of unscented lotion, and wearing lightweight, soft clothing.
word bank
Word Bank

Integumentary Dermis

Subcutaneous Lunula

Sweat glands Apocrine



Taylor, Tim. “Integumentary System.” HowToMedia, Inc., Oct 2012. 25 Jan 2014.

Dr. Ali N. Syed. “Structure of Hair.” July 2008. 25 Jan 2014.

“Integumentary System.” 25 Jan 2014.

Baxamusa, Batul. “Integumentary System Functions.” Feb 28 2012.

25 Jan 2014.

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