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Crime and Cyber-crime. Pieter Hartel. Crime. Acts or missions forbidden by law that can be punished […] , against: persons (e.g. rape, assault, murder, suicide) property (e.g. fraud, arson, theft, vandalism) the state (e.g. riot, treason, sabotage, terrorism)

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Crime and Cyber-crime


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    1. Crime and Cyber-crime Pieter Hartel

    2. Crime • Acts or missions forbidden by law that can be punished […], against: • persons (e.g. rape, assault, murder, suicide) • property (e.g. fraud, arson, theft, vandalism) • the state (e.g. riot, treason, sabotage, terrorism) • morality (e.g. gambling, drugs, obscenity) • Disorder is broader than crime, e.g. • Littering, graffiti, loitering, etc. [Wil98] J. Q. Wilson and R. J. Herrnstein. Crime & Human Nature: The Definitive Study of the Causes of Crime. Free Press, Jan 1998. Cyber-crime Science

    3. Example Cyber-crime Science

    4. Cyber-crime • Crime where computers are used as a tool, target or place: • Computer assisted crime (e.g. Advance fee fraud) • Computer integrity crime (e.g. DDoS attack) • Computer content crime (e.g. Software piracy) [New09] G. R. Newman. Cybercrime. In M. D. Krohn, et al, editors, Handbook on Crime and Deviance. Springer, Nov 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0245-0_25 Cyber-crime Science

    5. Technology and crime • Which of these are “virtual”? • Which of these promote anonymity? Cyber-crime Science

    6. Cyber space vs “meat” space • “virtual” but that’s nothing new (why?) • More easily automated (why?) • Harder to police (why?) Cyber-crime Science

    7. Some examples Cyber-crime Science

    8. Computer assisted crime • Murder • 13-year old US girl bullied into suicide in 2006 • 3-month old Korean child dies from neglect in 2010 • Extortion • Virginia DHP ransom demand 10 M $ in 2009 • BetCris hacker sentenced to 8 years in 2006 • (New business http://www.prolexic.com/ ) Cyber-crime Science

    9. Computer integrity crime • Distributed denial of service (DDoS) • Estonian Cyber war in 2007 • Operation Payback end 2010 – mid 2011 • Hacking • Comcast hackers sentenced to 18 months in 2008 • Sarah Palin email hacker sentenced to 1 year in 2010 • Hundreds of incidents Cyber-crime Science

    10. Computer content crime • Piracy • Pirate Bay four sentenced to 1 year in 2009 • US Software pirate sentenced to 2 years in 2011 • Data base theft • Sony Play station network hack in 2011 exposed 77M accounts, cost 171M$ • Sonypictures.com exposed 1M passwords • TJX Hacker sentenced to 20 years in 2011 Cyber-crime Science

    11. Old Crime Serial Labour intensive Local Geographical place Cyber-crime Can be Simultaneous Can be automated Global Effort? Requires conversion to meat space Differences Cyber-crime Science

    12. Similarities • Most Cyber-crime a variant of old crime • False billing vs Phishing • Click fraud vs Replying to junk mail with bricks • Technology used for new crime before • Printing press for counterfeiting • Telegraph for books by Charles Dickens Cyber-crime Science

    13. Cyber-crime triangle • A motivated offender “attacks” a suitable target in the absence of a capable guardian: • Attacks via vulnerabilities of the users • Attacks via vulnerabilities of the systems • Propagating attacks • Exploiting attacks Cyber-crime Science

    14. Attack vulnerable user • Social engineer a user • 2001 SPAM with AnnaKournikova.jpg.vbs • Phishing (More later) • Hacking into server • Password cracker like L0phtCrack • Intelligence from OSN as in the Palin email hack Cyber-crime Science

    15. Attack vulnerable system • Exploit known vulnerability and install malware on a client • Trojan like Zeus for key logging • Physical access via autorun • Find & exploit vulnerable system • Vulnerability scanner like Acunetix • SQL injection Cyber-crime Science

    16. Propagating attacks • Change the web site on the server • Create a drive by download to infect a client • Create a botnet out of infected clients to: • Send spam • Perpetrate a DDoS attack • Evade detection Cyber-crime Science

    17. Exploiting attacks • Carding • CC theft (skimming, hacking) • trade (forum) • cashing (online auctions, counterfeit cards at ATM) • Online banking fraud • Credential theft (phishing) • trade (forum) • Cashing (money mules) • Cyber crime needs meat space… Cyber-crime Science

    18. Conclusions • Increasing specialisation of offenders • Increasing sophistication of the tools • Key crime opportunities: social engineering, vulnerable systems, and software issues • Motive is now mostly money • How to prevent all this? Cyber-crime Science