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24 September 2013. Today’s Bell Ringer. The beginning of the second half of this 9 weeks. Cell structure, cell theory, cell membrane. As you get settled today, think about what a cell is. Write down what you know about cells and we will talk about them later this morning.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

24 September 2013

Today’s Bell Ringer

  • The beginning of the second half of this 9 weeks.
  • Cell structure, cell theory, cell membrane.
  • As you get settled today, think about what a cell is.
  • Write down what you know about cells and we will talk about them later this morning.
slide2

Cell Facts - http://www.ted.com/talks/david_bolinsky_animates_a_cell.html

  • There are anywhere from 75 to 100 trillion cells in the body.
  • There are more bacterial cells in the body than human cells.
  • Prokaryotes are the most primitive forms of life on earth.
  • Cells have varying life spans.
  • Cells commit suicide.
  • Cells contain structures called organelles that carry out functions for the cell.
  • Microscopes are required to see cells.
  • An egg is one cell.
  • One single cell contains two meters of DNA.
  • Humans shed and regrow outer skin cells about every 27 days.
slide3

26 September 2013

Today’s Bell Ringer

Without looking at your text, can you write down the three

parts of the Cell Theory?

What is a Theory? How does it differ from a Law?

Study Guide pages: 21 & 22

An online animation to help learn about cell

organelles

http://www.carolina.com/teacher-resources/Interactive/online-game-cell-structure-cellcraft-biology/tr11062.tr

slide4

The cell theory grew out of the work of many scientists and improvements in the microscope.

  • Many scientists contributed to the cell theory.
  • As technology advanced, more was learned about cells.
  • Advances include better lenses in microscopes.
slide5

Early studies led to the development of the cell theory.

  • The Cell theory has three principles.
    • - All organisms are made of cells.
    • - All existing cells are produced by other living cells.
    • - The cell is the most basic unit of life.
slide8
Prokaryotic cells lack a nucleus and most internal structures of eukaryotic cells.
    • All cells share certain characteristics.
slide9

Bacterium

(colored SEM; magnification 8800x)

  • Prokaryotic cells lack a nucleus and most internal structures of eukaryotic cells.
    • All cells share certain characteristics.
      • Cells tend to be microscopic.
slide10

cell membrane

Bacterium

(colored SEM; magnification 8800x)

  • Prokaryotic cells lack a nucleus and most internal structures of eukaryotic cells.
    • All cells share certain characteristics.
      • Cells tend to be microscopic.
      • All cells are enclosed by a membrane.
slide11

cell membrane

cytoplasm

Bacterium

(colored SEM; magnification 8800x)

  • Prokaryotic cells lack a nucleus and most internal structures of eukaryotic cells.
    • All cells share certain characteristics.
      • Cells tend to be microscopic.
      • All cells are enclosed by a membrane.
      • All cells are filled with cytoplasm.
slide13

nucleus

cell membrane

  • There are two cell types: eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells.
    • Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus.
slide14

nucleus

organelles

cell membrane

  • There are two cell types: eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells.
    • Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus.
    • Prokaryotic cells do not have membrane- bound organelles.
slide15

nucleus

organelles

cell membrane

  • There are two cell types: eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells.
    • Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus.
slide16

nucleus

organelles

cell membrane

cytoplasm

  • There are two cell types: eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells.
    • Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus.
    • Prokaryotic cells do not have membrane-bound organelles.
slide17

27 September 2013

Today’s Bell Ringer

Using Microscopes – Pick up the microscope handouts and label the parts of a microscope.

There are four types of microscopes.

* dissecting – scanning electron – transmission electron – compound

slide19

Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM )– electron beams are used to scan the surface

topography of an object.

slide20

Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) – a beam of electrons is transmitted through

an ultra-thin specimen, interacting with the specimen as it passes through.

Chlamydomonas

slide22

30 September 2013

Today’s Bell Ringer

Cell organelles –

Write down the definition of an Organelle

Begin working in the Study Guide, pages 23 & 24

☺ Quiz Thursday on cells and organelles

Latin Roots

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Greek_and_Latin_roots_in_English#A

slide23

PROKARYOTE

EUKARYOTE

slide26
Cells have an internal structure.
    • The cytoskeleton has many functions.
slide27
Cells have an internal structure.
    • The cytoskeleton has many functions.
      • supports and shapes cell
slide28
Cells have an internal structure.
    • The cytoskeleton has many functions.
      • supports and shapes cell
      • helps position and transport organelles
slide29
Cells have an internal structure.
    • The cytoskeleton has many functions.
      • supports and shapes cell
      • helps position and transport organelles
      • provides strength
slide30
Cells have an internal structure.
    • The cytoskeleton has many functions.
      • supports and shapes cell
      • helps position and transport organelles
      • provides strength
      • assists in cell division
slide31
Cells have an internal structure.
    • The cytoskeleton has many functions.
      • supports and shapes cell
      • helps position and transport organelles
      • provides strength
      • assists in cell division
      • aids in cell movement
slide33
Several organelles are involved in making and processing proteins.
    • The nucleus stores genetic information.
slide34
Several organelles are involved in making and processing proteins.
    • The nucleus stores genetic information.
    • Many processes occur in the endoplasmic reticulum.

(ER)

Smooth

Rough

slide35
Several organelles are involved in making and processing proteins.
    • The nucleus stores genetic information.
    • Many processes occur in the endoplasmic reticulum.
    • There are two types
    • of endoplasmic reticulum.
slide36
Several organelles are involved in making and processing proteins.
    • The nucleus stores genetic information.
    • Many processes occur in the endoplasmic reticulum.
    • There are two types of endoplasmic reticulum.
      • rough endoplasmic reticulum
slide37
Several organelles are involved in making and processing proteins.
    • The nucleus stores genetic information.
    • Many processes occur in the endoplasmic reticulum.
    • There are two types of endoplasmic reticulum.
      • rough endoplasmic reticulum
      • smooth endoplasmic reticulum
slide39
Several organelles are involved in making and processing proteins. (continued)
    • Ribosomes link amino acids to form proteins.
slide40
Several organelles are involved in making and processing proteins. (continued)
    • Ribosomes link amino acids to form proteins.
    • The Golgi apparatus processes, sorts, and ships these proteins.
    • Vesicles are membrane-bound sacs that hold materials.
slide42
Other organelles have various functions.
    • Mitochondriasupply energy to the cell.

- Plants and animals

slide43
Other organelles have various functions.
    • Mitochondria supply energy to the cell.
    • Vacuoles are fluid-filled sacs that hold materials.

Plants

only

slide44
Other organelles have various functions.
    • Mitochondria supply energy to the cell.
    • Vacuoles are fluid-filled sacs that hold materials.
    • Lysosomescontain enzymes to digest material.

Animals

only

slide45
Other organelles have various functions.
    • Mitochondria supply energy to the cell.
    • Vacuoles are fluid-filled sacs that hold materials.
    • Lysosomes contain enzymes to digest material.
    • Centrioles are tubes found

in the centrosomes.

slide46
Other organelles have various functions.
    • Mitochondria supply energy to the cell.
    • Vacuoles are fluid-filled sacs that hold materials.
    • Lysosomes contain enzymes to digest material.
    • Centrioles are tubes found in the centrosomes.
      • Centrioles help divide DNA.
slide47
Other organelles have various functions.
    • Mitochondria supply energy to the cell.
    • Vacuoles are fluid-filled sacs that hold materials.
    • Lysosomes contain enzymes to digest material.
    • Centrioles are tubes found in the centrosomes.
      • Centrioles help divide DNA.
      • Centrioles form cilia and flagella.
slide49
Plant cells have cell walls and chloroplasts.
    • A cell wall provides rigid support.
slide50
Plant cells have cell walls and chloroplasts.
    • A cell wall provides rigid support.
    • Chloroplasts convert solar energy to chemical energy.
slide51

2 October 2013

Today’s Bell Ringer

Cell organelles – continued

☺ Quiz Thursday (tomorrow) on cells and organelles

slide52

7 October 2013

Today’s Bell Ringer

Cell organelles – continued

What is surface area?

Draw an organelle that epitomizes why surface area is important

in biological organisms.

slide53

8 October 2013

Today’s Bell Ringer

1) How do cell organelles and the cell membrane interact?

2) What roles does the cell membrane preform for organisms?

3) How is the cell membrane constructed?

Youtube video titles

The Cell Membrane

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S7CJ7xZOjm0&safe=active

Cell Organelles And Their Function Animation (BOTH 3D AND MICROSCOPIC VIEWS ) http://www.youtube.com/watch?annotation_id=annotation_937748&feature=iv&src_vid=LP7xAr2FDFU&v=fKEaTt9heNM&safe=active

Chapter 6: Cell Membranes and Active and Passive Transport

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RqtQfSDEKIM&safe=active

slide54

9 October 2013

Today’s Bell Ringer

Cell organelles test review – 2nd period

-What makes a plant different than an animal

plant: cell wall, central vacuole, chloroplast

-Smooth ER – develops removed toxins, produces lipds

-Cell Theory !!! All parts

-Cell Membrane – filter/barrier – Facilitates the transport of things inside ando outside of the cells. Made of phospholipids.

-Types of microscopes -

slide55

9 October 2013

Today’s Bell Ringer

Cell organelles test review – 3rd period

-What are three parts of the cell theory?

-What are microtubles? Support and structure

-What are centrioles? Cell division

-What are cell membranes composed of?

-What three organelles are only in plants? Cell Wall, Chlorophyll, and Central Vacuole

-What is the nucleus? Stores/protect the genetic information

-DNA codes only for protein

-Nucleuolus – where ribosomes are created

-What is the function of a ribosome?

-What types of microscopes did we talk about?

slide56

9 October 2013

Today’s Bell Ringer

Cell organelles test review – 4th period

-How would you best describe the contributions of the cell

theory?

-compare and contrast the nucleus and vesicles

they are both membrane bound, DNA – stuff/waste/proteins

nucleus has nuclear pores

-Does a prokaryote have ribosomes? YES

-What is the function of the golgi apparatus? Shipping/packaging

-What does the cytoskeleton do?

-What is the centrosome? – cell division

-Cilia and flagella. Help with movement

-different types of microscopes.

slide57

9 October 2013

Today’s Bell Ringer

Cell organelles test review – 5th period

-What does the cytoskeleton do?

-What does the cell membrane do and made of? Regulates

what enters and leaves a cell, proteins embedded in the

membrane, cell protection-a covering.

constructed of a bilipd layer, phospholipids.

-Difference between a prokaryote and eukaryotic cell.

-Cell Theory

-Theory – well documented explanation for a phenomenon – it

can be modified over time.

-difference between organelles ER & Golgi

-difference between plants and animals.

-microscopes – different kinds

slide58

9 October 2013

Today’s Bell Ringer

Cell organelles test review – 6th period

-What are the four types of microscopes and what are their

functions?

-Besides the cell membrane what else has a membrane in a

cell? Nucleus, ER, mitochondria, vacuole, golgi

-What did the 5 people contribute to the cell theory.

-What is a Theory? Change is important. A proposed

explanation for a wide variety of observations and

experimental results. It is backed up by sound science

and many repeated experiments.

-What is the difference between plants and animals.

-What is the difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes

-what do ribosomes do?

slide59

9 October 2013

Today’s Bell Ringer

Cell organelles test review – 7th period

-What are the differences between prokaryote and eukaryote?

Nucleus & membrane bound organelles

-What organelle packages and ships “things”? Golgi

-What is the difference between the golgi and smooth ER?

-difference between plants and animals.

-differences between mitochondria and chloroplasts

-What is a theory as opposed to a law?