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Developing Study Skills and Research Methods. Unit Code: HL20107. Unit Leader: Dr James Betts. J.Betts@bath.ac.uk. Learn to review and critique scientific literature Develop your presentation skills Expand your understanding of research design

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slide1

Developing Study Skills and Research Methods

Unit Code: HL20107

Unit Leader: Dr James Betts

J.Betts@bath.ac.uk

objectives
Learn to review and critique scientific literature

Develop your presentation skills

Expand your understanding of research design

Gain a more advanced appreciation of data analysis

Introduce you to different perspectives in Exercise Science.

Objectives:
lecture schedule
Lecture Schedule
  • Mondays 1515
  • All in room 3E 3.8
  • Weeks 1-11.
slide4

Job Applications/CV Writing

Unit Overview/How to Write a literature Review

Presenting Scientific Research

Plagiarism

Scientific Writing

Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods*

Data Collection and Analysis in Qualitative Research

Can We Trust Sports Science?*

Assessed Presentations I

Assessed Presentations II

Assessed Presentations III.

* Prior reading required

semester 1 computer laboratory classes
Friday 12.15

Weeks 4 & 5

Room 2E 1.14

Friday 13.15

Week 4 & 5

Room CB 5.13

Semester 1 Computer Laboratory Classes

Surnames A-J

Surnames K-Z

slide6

Introduction and Revision Session

One-Way Analysis of Variance

Managing Violated Statistical Assumptions

Locating Variance: Post-Hoc Tests

Statistical Power: Sample and Effect Size

Linear Regression and Coursework Details

Data Collection Practical

Practice for Timed Practical Computing Exercise

Timed Practical Computing Exercise

Coursework Revision Lecture

Coursework Hand-In.

assessment
Coursework Project (40%)

2000 word project similar to the one you did last year but using more advanced statistical analyses

The relevant research scenarios and data will be added to the web page in week 24

Hand-in date TBC in week 19.

Assessment
  • Timed Practical Computing Exercise (20%)
    • In week 30 you will be required to use SPSS to analyse a number of data sets
assessment8
Group Literature Review (20%)

Organise yourselves into groups of 5

Select an area of research that is of interest to you

Find and read relevant articles

Fill in the form on the web page to let us know your group/topic by week 4 (21st October)

Write a 2000 word literature review

To be handed in Thursday 21st November 2012

Groups distribute your grades amongst others.

Assessment
assessment9
Group Presentations (20%)

Choose one original research article that is central to your group literature review

Prepare a PowerPoint presentation as if the study was to be presented at a scientific conference

You will be presenting as groups in weeks 9, 10 &11

I will let you know which week via Email after your lecture on the 21st October

Assessment
previous topics
Previous Topics…
  • The Effects of Training at Altitude
  • Nutritional Strategies to Promote Recovery
  • Psychological Components of Injury and Rehabilitation
  • The Effects of Smoking on VO2 max
  • The Effect of Pre-Exercise Stretching on Muscle Power Output.
different types of papers
Different types of papers
  • Primary literature
  • Secondary literature
  • Tertiary literature
primary literature
Primary Literature
  • Research Papers
  • Case Studies
  • Conference Proceedings
  • Dissertations
primary literature13
Primary Literature
  • Research papers
    • Original data
    • First published record of the findings of an experiment of series of experiments
    • Peer reviewed
    • Normally a group of authors
primary literature14
Primary Literature
  • Case studies
    • Medical/veterinary/psychology literature
    • Normally peer reviewed
    • Report the circumstances of a particular case
      • i.e. an unusual repair technique for a ruptured achilles tendon
primary literature15
Primary Literature
  • Conference proceedings
    • Vary in length and quality!
    • Sometimes reviewed, sometimes not
    • Often preliminary data
    • Will often appear later in research paper form
primary literature16
Primary Literature
  • Dissertations
    • Undergraduate research (BSc, MSc, BEng or MEng)
    • Graduate research (MSc, MPhil, PhD)
    • University published
    • BSc all dissertation that achieve mark of 50% or above in library
    • MPhil & PhD theses are examined and corrected
secondary literature
Secondary Literature
  • Review articles
    • Information about primary sources
    • Compilation or synthesis of ideas and data
    • Should be reasonably objective (although often aren’t)
    • Usually peer reviewed
tertiary literature
Tertiary Literature
  • Textbooks – present science theory rather than contributing to it
research paper structure
Research Paper Structure
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Materials and Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • References
abstract
Abstract
  • Advertisement for the paper
  • Summary of paper
    • Reason for performing the study
    • Hypothesis
    • Important results
    • Implications of the findings
introduction
Introduction
  • Background to the study
  • Brief overview of the current state of the field
    • Citing other people’s work

“The function of tendons can be classified into two categories: tensile force transmission, and storage of elastic strain energy during locomotion (Ker et al., 1988, 2000; Shadwick, 1990; Pollock and Shadwick, 1994).”

(Maganaris and Paul, 2002)

introduction22
Introduction
  • Background to the study
  • Brief overview of the current state of the field
    • Citing other people’s work
  • How the authors arrived at their research question
  • Why this is the most important question in the world!
  • HYPOTHESIS
    • Simple
    • Easily answered
materials and methods
Clear concise description of what they did

Often includes figure of experimental setup if appropriate

Subjects

Data collection – what they were measuring and how

Analysis

Statistics

Methods should be clear enough to repeat the experiment and give the same results

Materials and Methods
results
Results
  • What they found
  • Visual representation of the data
    • Graphs
    • Tables
  • Good figure legends
  • Description of their results - no discussion of the implications
discussion
Interpretation of the results

How they relate to previous research

Implication and/or applications of the findings

How supplement A might improve endurance

How knowledge of the forces at the knee during a cutting manoeuvre might be used to reduce injury risk

Future directions for research

Discussion
references
Expansion of the citations in the text

Record of the authors, title and journal where the papers were published

Critically important to avoid plagiarism – must include the sources of all information that is other people’s intellectual property

Two citation methods

Harvard System

Numeric System

Individual journals will request specific methods

References
references27
Harvard System

Cite references in the text by giving author’s surname(s) and year of publication.

“The function of tendons can be classified into two categories: tensile force transmission, and storage of elastic strain energy during locomotion (Ker et al., 1988, 2000; Shadwick, 1990; Pollock and Shadwick, 1994).”

References
references28
Harvard System

Cite references in the text by giving author’s surname(s) and year of publication.

“The function of tendons can be classified into two categories: tensile force transmission, and storage of elastic strain energy during locomotion (Ker et al., 1988, 2000; Shadwick, 1990; Pollock and Shadwick, 1994).”

(Maganaris and Paul, 2002)

Reference list – alphabetical order

Ker, R.F., Alexander, R.McN. and Bennet, M.B. 1988. Why are mammalian tendons so thick? Journal of Zoology, London216, 309-324

Don’t use capitals for authors’ names as in library guide to referencing

References
references29
Numeric System

Each citation is given a number in parentheses. These are numbered according to where they appear in the text. First reference is (1), second reference is (2) etc

“However, excess tendon elongation leads to a partial or complete tendon rupture (4), and the Achilles tendon is one of the most frequently injured tendons in the human body (5)”

(Muraoka et al., 2005)

Reference list – listed in numerical order based on number you have given each citation in the text.

4. Butler, D.L., Grood, E.S., Noyes, F.R.and Zernicke, R.F. 1978. Biomechanics of ligaments and tendons. Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev. 6, 125-181

References
references30
Library Guide to Referencing

http://www.bath.ac.uk/library/guides/references.html

References
what is a literature review
What is a literature review?
  • Critical look at existing research relevant to your question in order to
    • Identify the problem
    • Develop a hypothesis
    • Develop a method
  • It is NOT just a summary of a series of research papers
  • You must evaluate the research papers and show the relationships between different work
what is a literature review32
What is a literature review?
  • Approach it with the following questions
    • What do we already know in the area concerned?
    • What are the key concepts?
    • What are the existing theories?
    • What are the inconsistencies?
    • What evidence is lacking, inconclusive, contradictory or too limited?
    • What views need to be tested further?
selecting a topic
Selecting a topic
  • Real World vs Theoretical
  • Research at Bath or another institution
  • Controversial issues
  • Relevant to your sport
  • Review papers
  • Interesting!!!
six step procedure thomas and nelson 1996
Six Step Procedure (Thomas and Nelson, 1996)
  • Problem statement
  • Consult secondary sources
    • Reviews – Exercise and Sport Science reviews
    • Be wary of www sources
evaluating internet sources
Evaluating Internet Sources
  • Is it someone’s ‘personal’ page?
  • What type of domain does it come from?
    • academic, charity, industry, government
  • Who published the page?
  • What are the author’s credentials?
  • Are sources documented?
  • When was it last updated?
six step procedure thomas and nelson 199636
Six Step Procedure (Thomas and Nelson, 1996)
  • Problem statement
  • Consult secondary sources
    • Reviews – Exercise and Sport Science reviews
    • Be wary of www sources
  • Determine descriptors
    • Search terms
  • Search for primary sources
  • Read and record literature
  • Write literature review
read and record literature
Read and Record Literature
  • Hypothesis / Question
  • Methods
    • Subjects
    • Instruments/tests used
    • Testing procedures
  • Independent/dependent variables
  • Analysis
  • Findings and Conclusions
  • Critique of paper – strengths/weaknesses
how to write a literature review
How to Write a Literature Review
  • Background
    • Introduce to topic to the reader
    • Make it interesting and easily understandable by explaining it in plain language and relating to actual or potential applications
    • Explain scientific principles underlying the topic
    • Define and justify the scope of the review – i.e. your question
how to write a literature review39
How to Write a Literature Review
  • Critique of the Literature
    • Do not give a summary paper by paper
    • Deal with themes and try to draw together the results from several papers into each theme.
    • Use sub-headings to identify your themes
    • Try and create a logical progression through the subject/argument
    • Use what you have learnt about research design to critically evaluate the results of the papers you are discussing
how to write a literature review40
How to Write a Literature Review
  • Tables and Figures
    • Tables can be a useful, concise way of summarising the findings of a number of similar studies
    • You must cite the sources of the information
    • Use tables alongside your evaluation of the data in the text, not instead of it
    • Figures and diagrams can be very useful to explain important principles
      • Cite source of information
how to write a literature review41
How to Write a Literature Review
  • Conclusions
    • Should be short and concise
    • What is your opinion
  • Further Research
    • Finish your review with some ideas for further research that needs to be done in the area and why.
how to write a literature review42
How to Write a Literature Review
  • References
    • As used in Journal of Sports Sciences
      • Names of author (s) and date of publication in the text
      • Full references listed in alphabetical order in the reference list
      • Instructions on formatting references can be found in all issues of JSS or on the JSS website
      • http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/authors/rjspauth.pdf Section 5(h)
writing style
Writing Style
  • Spelling, grammar and punctuation matter!
    • Use spell check
    • Ask someone to read your paper for you before handing it in
  • Fonts and Symbols
    • Do not use stylised fonts
    • Many of the symbols needed for scientific information can be found in insert-symbol
      • Normal text (° ± Δ ½)
      • Mathematical operators (Ω √ ≤ ∑)
writing style44
Writing Style
  • Abbreviations and Acronyms
    • Keep to a minimum
    • Only use if full expression is excessively long or abbreviation is in common use
    • Define the first time it is used
  • Use SI (Systeme Internationale) Units
slide45

Système Internationale (SI) Units

  • Seven ‘constant’* base units using the metric system

Units always lower-case#, neither italicised nor pleuralised (i.e. kg not KGS) and with space between value and unit (inc. % but exc. º).

writing style46
Writing Style
  • Tables
    • Insert-Table in word
    • Units in column and row headings
    • Use a realistic number of significant figures
    • Include a legend which describes the table
  • Figures
    • Create figure in powerpoint of graphics software
    • Insert-picture from file
    • Create graphs in Excel or other graph drawing package
    • Paste into word
    • For this review paste figures into appropriate place in the text. For publication figures should be separate
writing style47
Writing Style
  • Use of Words
    • Be economical – don’t waffle
    • Be precise – don’t generalise, be specific if you can
    • Don’t use however more than once in a paragraph
      • changing the direction of an argument twice in one paragraph can confuse the reader
    • Don’t use however too often
      • Thesaurus for synonyms
    • Keep technical terms to a minimum
    • Avoid colloquialisms such as steer clear of
writing style48
Writing Style
  • Use of Words
    • Don’t use long complicated sentences
    • Beware of tenses
      • When describing experiments and reporting results use past tense
      • When discussing implications use present tense
    • Beware of singular and plural terms
      • Datum – data
      • Medium – media
      • Phenomenon – phenomena
writing style49
Writing Style
  • Flow of Ideas
    • Focus your thoughts by writing a plan/outline first
    • The first sentence of a paragraph usually sets the topic for the paragraph
    • Check that you don’t contradict yourself
    • Aim for simplicity!