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Module 2 Lifestyle, Fitness and Wellness. Aims: To heighten awareness of the importance of choosing a healthy and active lifestyle, and to understand the effects of stress and nutrition on lifestyle. Objectives Module 2. Objectives:

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Module 2 Lifestyle, Fitness and Wellness

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    1. Module 2 Lifestyle, Fitness and Wellness Aims: To heighten awareness of the importance of choosing a healthyand active lifestyle, and to understand the effects of stress and nutrition on lifestyle.

    2. Objectives Module 2 Objectives: • To recognise the consequences of modern society and identifythe reasons for choosing a healthy lifestyle • To describe techniques used to motivate individuals to participate in regular physical activity • To prescribe exercise modification for people with special needs in a regular exercise class

    3. Objectives • To describe appropriate stress reduction techniques • To describe the principles underlying healthy eating and the relationship between energy balance, physical activity and weight management

    4. Continuous Assessment Procedures Two written assessments 50% x 2 (6-7 questions per assessment, 40 mins for each assessment) 3.1.a.iv OH

    5. What is a healthy lifestyle?

    6. WHO/FAO (2003) • “The burden of chronic diseases – which include cardiovascular diseases, cancers, diabetes and obesity – is rapidly increasing worldwide. In 2001, chronic diseases contributed approximately 59% of the 56.5 million total reported deaths in the world and 46% of the global burden of disease.” • Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health (WHO/FAO June 2003)

    7. Risk Factors for Chronic diseases • High blood pressure • High cholesterol levels • Obesity • Low levels of physical activity • All of these risk factors could be easily prevented.

    8. Cigarette Smoking • Cigarette smoking affects the heart and the lungs • Causes cancers and is a risk factor for osteoporosis • Passive smoking is a significant factor in cardiovascular deaths each year (American Heart Association, American Lung Association, American Cancer Society)

    9. Stress Management • Continuous stress over time may contribute to heart problems and other illnesses. • Exercise, listening to music, meeting friends are all ways to relax. • Everyone should find time to relax and do something enjoyable. • Adequate rest and sleep are necessary to avoid fatigue, a possible stressor.

    10. Diet • Eat a wide variety of foods – Food Pyramid • Reduce fat intake • Increase intake of fruit and vegetables • Drink more water • Eat less sugary foods and drinks • Reduce salt intake • Alcohol in moderation – 14 units for women, 21 units for men over one week

    11. Physical Activity • Undertake moderate-intensity physical activity for at least an hour a day (WHO/FAO, 2003). • Choose activities you enjoy • Choose activities that are dynamic and use the major muscle groups. • Examples – brisk walking, swimming, cycling, dancing etc (AHA, 2002)

    12. Physical Activity 2 • Simple rule – physical activity should elevate heart rate and breathing somewhat, but a person should still be able to carry on a conversation. (ACSM, 2001) • Greater health benefits can be achieved by increasing the amount (duration, frequency or intensity) of physical activity (Surgeon General’s Report, 1996).

    13. Health Benefits of Regular Exercise

    14. Benefits of Daily Physical Activity (AHA, 2002) • Reduces risk of heart disease • Healthy body weight • Healthy cholesterol levels • Prevents and manages high blood pressure • Prevents bone loss • Boosts energy levels

    15. Benefits of Daily Physical Activity 2 • Stress management – releases tension, improves sleeping patterns • Improves self-image • Counters anxiety and depression • Improves muscular strength • Accommodates socialisation • Establishes good lifetime habits in children • Maintains independence and quality of life in older adults

    16. Precautions for a Healthy Start • Suggestions? • Medical readiness • To avoid soreness and injury? • People with chronic health problems should consult their physician (screening) • Any other advise? – Footwear, clothing, hydration, timing of exercise etc

    17. Exercise for Fitness(ACSM, 2000) • Cardio-respiratory fitness and body composition • Muscular endurance and strength • Flexibility • FITT

    18. Wellness • Integration of all parts of health and fitness that expands one’s potential to live and work effectively (Mind/body concept) • Self-responsibility • How one feels as well as one’s ability to function effectively

    19. Domains of Wellness(Mind/Body Concept) • Social domain: Personal relationships • Emotional domain:Positive self-concept • Physical domain:Exercise, Diet and safe practices • Occupational domain: Productivity • Intellectual domain: Critical Thinking • Spiritual domain:Meaning and purpose in life

    20. How can adopting a healthy lifestyle benefit the domains of wellness? • Physical • Emotional • Social • Intellectual • Occupational • Spiritual

    21. Hypokinetic

    22. Risk Factors (What diseases/illnesses may occur?) • Excessive weight • Low levels of physical activity • Poor dietary habits • High blood pressure • Excessive stress • Cigarette smoking • Excessive alcohol consumption

    23. Revision • Briefly define wellness and outline its components. • Explain the term ‘hypokinetic’. • Name three hypokinetic diseases or conditions. • Identify risk factors that cause these diseases.

    24. Cardiovascular Disease • Irish men and women have the highest rate of death from CHD in the EU before age 65. (WHO) • Almost as many women die each year from heart disease as men. (IHF, 2002) • In 2001, just under 6,000 women died from diseases of the heart and circulatory system and just over 6,000 men. (IHF, 2002)

    25. The Heart (M1 notes)

    26. Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) • Arteriosclerosis: hardening of the arteries due to conditions that cause the arterial walls to become thick, hard and non-elastic • Atherosclerosis: progressive condition; deposits of cholesterol; other lipids and cellular waste products accumulate on the inner walls of the coronary arteries; plaque

    27. Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) • What Injures the Lining of Arteries? High blood cholesterol levels, excessive dietary cholesterol and saturated fats, high blood pressure, nicotine, reaction to perceived stress • Ischemia: decrease in blood supply to heart muscle

    28. Heart Disease through the Life Cycle

    29. Damage to the Heart

    30. Damaged Artery

    31. Questions (1) • What Is Angina Pectoris? Coronary artery is partially blocked leading to O2 debt. May be brought on by vigorous exercise or sudden exertion. Individual feels a sharp pain in the chest, jaw or along the inside of the arm indicative of a mild heart attack.

    32. Questions (2) • What Is Myocardial Infarction? Results when one or more coronary arteries are blocked by atherosclerosis and a blood clot (thrombus) plugs the remaining opening. Portion of heart muscle beyond blockage is deprived of O2, resulting in injury or death of that portion.

    33. Questions (3) • What Is a Stroke? • Blood vessel bursts or artery is clogged by clot or other matter. This causes nerve cells to die. Brain cells cannot heal. • Risk Factors for Stroke: hypertension, heart disease, gender, diabetes, age, race, stress, smoking, high cholesterol levels

    34. Risk Factors for CHD • High blood pressure • Smoking • Obesity - android, high blood pressure, high blood lipids, diabetes • Stress • Sedentary lifestyle

    35. Risk Factors for CHD • Family history • Gender: oestrogen effect may raise levels of HDLs • Age: males after 45 years, Females after 55 years • Race: in the U.S., blacks are 33% more likely to suffer from hypertension

    36. Modifiable and Non-Modifiable Risk Factors for CHD • High blood pressure • Cigarette smoking • Inactivity • High blood cholesterol levels • Obesity • Stress • Age • Positive family history • Gender • Race • Diabetes mellitus

    37. Cholesterol • Suggested “Healthy” levels of cholesterol – Total cholesterol no greater than 5 mmol/L. LDL cholesterol no greater than 4. HDL cholesterol greater than 1.15 (IHF, 2003) • LDLs: more prone to oxidation by macrophages at an injured site on the arterial wall (plaque). Smoking, emotional stress, diets high in saturated fats increase LDLs. • HDLs: protective against the development of atherosclerosis. Acts as a scavenger. Exercise may increase levels of HDLs.

    38. Primary Risk Factors • High blood pressure • High blood lipid levels • Cigarette smoking • Inactivity

    39. Secondary Risk Factors • Obesity • Stress • Age • Gender • Race • Positive family history • Diabetes mellitus

    40. Exercise Programming for Clients with CHD • Frequency = 3-4 times per week • Intensity = low intensity dynamic exercise, gradually increasing to 60-85% MHR, 4-7 RPE(11-15 RPE) • Time (duration) = total exercise duration should be gradually increased to 30-60 mins • Type = aerobic exercise (long gradual warm-up and cool-down); resistance training: low weight, high reps; flexibility

    41. Review • Exercise for health – recommendation? Give examples • Exercise for Fitness should include what components of fitness? • Domains of wellness • Why is exercise recognised as a means of reducing the incidence of CHD?

    42. Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease – Exam Question • List 5 modifiable risk factors for CHD and identify what lifestyle changes can positively influence such risk factors. (15 marks) • Answer may be given in table format • Key words?

    43. Read question twice • Underline key words • Decide - Give answers in bullet points/ table format/ diagram • Read question again • Check if you are on the right track • Write answer • Leave 8-10 lines blank – in case of Divine Inspiration!

    44. Blood Pressure • Is the force exerted against the blood vessel walls • Arterial blood pressure is the one most commonly measured and most important to our health

    45. Blood Pressure 2 • BP is given in two numbers – systolic/diastolic • Systolic = that phase during which the heart is pumping blood through the arterial system • Diastolic = that phase when the heart is resting between beats and blood is flowing back into it