Module 2 Lifestyle, Fitness and Wellness. Aims: To heighten awareness of the importance of choosing a healthy and active lifestyle, and to understand the effects of stress and nutrition on lifestyle. Objectives Module 2. Objectives:
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Module 2 Lifestyle, Fitness and Wellness Aims: To heighten awareness of the importance of choosing a healthyand active lifestyle, and to understand the effects of stress and nutrition on lifestyle.
Objectives Module 2 Objectives: • To recognise the consequences of modern society and identifythe reasons for choosing a healthy lifestyle • To describe techniques used to motivate individuals to participate in regular physical activity • To prescribe exercise modification for people with special needs in a regular exercise class
Objectives • To describe appropriate stress reduction techniques • To describe the principles underlying healthy eating and the relationship between energy balance, physical activity and weight management
Continuous Assessment Procedures Two written assessments 50% x 2 (6-7 questions per assessment, 40 mins for each assessment) 3.1.a.iv OH
WHO/FAO (2003) • “The burden of chronic diseases – which include cardiovascular diseases, cancers, diabetes and obesity – is rapidly increasing worldwide. In 2001, chronic diseases contributed approximately 59% of the 56.5 million total reported deaths in the world and 46% of the global burden of disease.” • Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health (WHO/FAO June 2003)
Risk Factors for Chronic diseases • High blood pressure • High cholesterol levels • Obesity • Low levels of physical activity • All of these risk factors could be easily prevented.
Cigarette Smoking • Cigarette smoking affects the heart and the lungs • Causes cancers and is a risk factor for osteoporosis • Passive smoking is a significant factor in cardiovascular deaths each year (American Heart Association, American Lung Association, American Cancer Society)
Stress Management • Continuous stress over time may contribute to heart problems and other illnesses. • Exercise, listening to music, meeting friends are all ways to relax. • Everyone should find time to relax and do something enjoyable. • Adequate rest and sleep are necessary to avoid fatigue, a possible stressor.
Diet • Eat a wide variety of foods – Food Pyramid • Reduce fat intake • Increase intake of fruit and vegetables • Drink more water • Eat less sugary foods and drinks • Reduce salt intake • Alcohol in moderation – 14 units for women, 21 units for men over one week
Physical Activity • Undertake moderate-intensity physical activity for at least an hour a day (WHO/FAO, 2003). • Choose activities you enjoy • Choose activities that are dynamic and use the major muscle groups. • Examples – brisk walking, swimming, cycling, dancing etc (AHA, 2002)
Physical Activity 2 • Simple rule – physical activity should elevate heart rate and breathing somewhat, but a person should still be able to carry on a conversation. (ACSM, 2001) • Greater health benefits can be achieved by increasing the amount (duration, frequency or intensity) of physical activity (Surgeon General’s Report, 1996).
Benefits of Daily Physical Activity (AHA, 2002) • Reduces risk of heart disease • Healthy body weight • Healthy cholesterol levels • Prevents and manages high blood pressure • Prevents bone loss • Boosts energy levels
Benefits of Daily Physical Activity 2 • Stress management – releases tension, improves sleeping patterns • Improves self-image • Counters anxiety and depression • Improves muscular strength • Accommodates socialisation • Establishes good lifetime habits in children • Maintains independence and quality of life in older adults
Precautions for a Healthy Start • Suggestions? • Medical readiness • To avoid soreness and injury? • People with chronic health problems should consult their physician (screening) • Any other advise? – Footwear, clothing, hydration, timing of exercise etc
Exercise for Fitness(ACSM, 2000) • Cardio-respiratory fitness and body composition • Muscular endurance and strength • Flexibility • FITT
Wellness • Integration of all parts of health and fitness that expands one’s potential to live and work effectively (Mind/body concept) • Self-responsibility • How one feels as well as one’s ability to function effectively
Domains of Wellness(Mind/Body Concept) • Social domain: Personal relationships • Emotional domain:Positive self-concept • Physical domain:Exercise, Diet and safe practices • Occupational domain: Productivity • Intellectual domain: Critical Thinking • Spiritual domain:Meaning and purpose in life
How can adopting a healthy lifestyle benefit the domains of wellness? • Physical • Emotional • Social • Intellectual • Occupational • Spiritual
Risk Factors (What diseases/illnesses may occur?) • Excessive weight • Low levels of physical activity • Poor dietary habits • High blood pressure • Excessive stress • Cigarette smoking • Excessive alcohol consumption
Revision • Briefly define wellness and outline its components. • Explain the term ‘hypokinetic’. • Name three hypokinetic diseases or conditions. • Identify risk factors that cause these diseases.
Cardiovascular Disease • Irish men and women have the highest rate of death from CHD in the EU before age 65. (WHO) • Almost as many women die each year from heart disease as men. (IHF, 2002) • In 2001, just under 6,000 women died from diseases of the heart and circulatory system and just over 6,000 men. (IHF, 2002)
Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) • Arteriosclerosis: hardening of the arteries due to conditions that cause the arterial walls to become thick, hard and non-elastic • Atherosclerosis: progressive condition; deposits of cholesterol; other lipids and cellular waste products accumulate on the inner walls of the coronary arteries; plaque
Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) • What Injures the Lining of Arteries? High blood cholesterol levels, excessive dietary cholesterol and saturated fats, high blood pressure, nicotine, reaction to perceived stress • Ischemia: decrease in blood supply to heart muscle
Questions (1) • What Is Angina Pectoris? Coronary artery is partially blocked leading to O2 debt. May be brought on by vigorous exercise or sudden exertion. Individual feels a sharp pain in the chest, jaw or along the inside of the arm indicative of a mild heart attack.
Questions (2) • What Is Myocardial Infarction? Results when one or more coronary arteries are blocked by atherosclerosis and a blood clot (thrombus) plugs the remaining opening. Portion of heart muscle beyond blockage is deprived of O2, resulting in injury or death of that portion.
Questions (3) • What Is a Stroke? • Blood vessel bursts or artery is clogged by clot or other matter. This causes nerve cells to die. Brain cells cannot heal. • Risk Factors for Stroke: hypertension, heart disease, gender, diabetes, age, race, stress, smoking, high cholesterol levels
Risk Factors for CHD • High blood pressure • Smoking • Obesity - android, high blood pressure, high blood lipids, diabetes • Stress • Sedentary lifestyle
Risk Factors for CHD • Family history • Gender: oestrogen effect may raise levels of HDLs • Age: males after 45 years, Females after 55 years • Race: in the U.S., blacks are 33% more likely to suffer from hypertension
Modifiable and Non-Modifiable Risk Factors for CHD • High blood pressure • Cigarette smoking • Inactivity • High blood cholesterol levels • Obesity • Stress • Age • Positive family history • Gender • Race • Diabetes mellitus
Cholesterol • Suggested “Healthy” levels of cholesterol – Total cholesterol no greater than 5 mmol/L. LDL cholesterol no greater than 4. HDL cholesterol greater than 1.15 (IHF, 2003) • LDLs: more prone to oxidation by macrophages at an injured site on the arterial wall (plaque). Smoking, emotional stress, diets high in saturated fats increase LDLs. • HDLs: protective against the development of atherosclerosis. Acts as a scavenger. Exercise may increase levels of HDLs.
Primary Risk Factors • High blood pressure • High blood lipid levels • Cigarette smoking • Inactivity
Secondary Risk Factors • Obesity • Stress • Age • Gender • Race • Positive family history • Diabetes mellitus
Exercise Programming for Clients with CHD • Frequency = 3-4 times per week • Intensity = low intensity dynamic exercise, gradually increasing to 60-85% MHR, 4-7 RPE(11-15 RPE) • Time (duration) = total exercise duration should be gradually increased to 30-60 mins • Type = aerobic exercise (long gradual warm-up and cool-down); resistance training: low weight, high reps; flexibility
Review • Exercise for health – recommendation? Give examples • Exercise for Fitness should include what components of fitness? • Domains of wellness • Why is exercise recognised as a means of reducing the incidence of CHD?
Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease – Exam Question • List 5 modifiable risk factors for CHD and identify what lifestyle changes can positively influence such risk factors. (15 marks) • Answer may be given in table format • Key words?
Read question twice • Underline key words • Decide - Give answers in bullet points/ table format/ diagram • Read question again • Check if you are on the right track • Write answer • Leave 8-10 lines blank – in case of Divine Inspiration!
Blood Pressure • Is the force exerted against the blood vessel walls • Arterial blood pressure is the one most commonly measured and most important to our health
Blood Pressure 2 • BP is given in two numbers – systolic/diastolic • Systolic = that phase during which the heart is pumping blood through the arterial system • Diastolic = that phase when the heart is resting between beats and blood is flowing back into it