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An Improved UDP Protocol for Video Transmission Over Internet-to-Wireless Networks. Haitao Zheng and Jill Boyce. IEEE Transaction on Multimedia. Leif 9/10/01. Outline. Introduction Improved UDP Design Packet Coding Design Analytical Performance Conclusion Further Work.

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An improved udp protocol for video transmission over internet to wireless networks
An Improved UDP Protocol for Video Transmission Over Internet-to-Wireless Networks

Haitao Zheng and Jill Boyce

IEEE Transaction on Multimedia

Leif 9/10/01


Outline
Outline Internet-to-Wireless Networks

  • Introduction

  • Improved UDP Design

  • Packet Coding Design

  • Analytical Performance

  • Conclusion

  • Further Work


Introduction 1 3
Introduction (1/3) Internet-to-Wireless Networks

  • Packet video will become a signification portion of emerging and further wireless/Internet traffic.

  • Network congestion and wireless channel error yield tremendous packet loss and degraded video quality.

  • Most Internet-based real-time multimedia services employ UDP.


Introduction 2 3
Introduction (2/3) Internet-to-Wireless Networks

  • UDP: no retransmission (delay), CRC

  • Reliable UDP(RUDP):

    Retransmission and CRC (header and payload)

  • UDP Lite:

    no retransmission, CRC (head only)


Introduction 3 3
Introduction (3/3) Internet-to-Wireless Networks

  • Employing forward error correction (FEC) code to the application packets can mitigate channel unreliability and improve media quality.

  • eg. Reed-Solomon (RS) codes.

    (n, k) RS codeword: the encoder chooses k packets and generates n – k parity packets. It can correct n – k erasures.


Improved udp design 1 3
Improved UDP Design (1/3) Internet-to-Wireless Networks

  • New interface between RLP and PPP, PPP and IP, IP and UDP, so that certain information can be exchanged in both directions.

  • The improved UDP should apply CRC to the packet header only and forward the packet payload to the application.


Improved udp design 2 3
Improved UDP Design (2/3) Internet-to-Wireless Networks

  • Type1:LTU Error Indicator

    (For FEC decoders that require erasure indicator)

    Error indicators contain the starting and ending location of the erroneous frame.

  • Type2:Reformatted Packet

    (For FEC decoders that can recognize erasures)


Improved udp design 3 3
Improved UDP Design (3/3) Internet-to-Wireless Networks

  • Complete UDP (CUDP) captures the error-free frames and the location of erroneous frames.

  • When combined with FEC coding, CUDP turns erroneous frames into erasure frames so that the other error-free frames can be utilized to recover the loss.


Packet coding design 1 3
Packet Coding Design (1/3) Internet-to-Wireless Networks

  • Vertical Packet Coding (VPC)

    The FEC encoder takes one data unit from each of k packets and generates (n - k) parity units (additional packets). It can recover (n - k) erasure packets.

  • eg. fig. 3. (a)

    MDS code (n, k) ~ (7, 4) It can recover 7 – 4 = 3 erasure packets.

  • VPC provides transparent Internet-to-Wireless communications. The UDP within the Internet remains unchanged.


Packet coding design 2 3
Packet Coding Design (2/3) Internet-to-Wireless Networks

  • Long Vertical Packet Coding (LVPC)

  • For a fixed ratio (n - k)/n, the MDS codes achieve better error/erasure correction efficiency as n increases.

  • MDS code (n, k) value↗  burst error resiliency ↗

    X/L MDS (nL, kL) L : column number

    eg. Fig. 3. (b)

    L = m = 7(nL, kL) ~ (49, 28)

    49 – 28 = 21

  • If the decoder fails, all the erasures can not be recovered.


Packet coding design 3 3
Packet Coding Design (3/3) Internet-to-Wireless Networks

Fig. 3.


Analytical performance error model
Analytical Performance Internet-to-Wireless NetworksError Model

Two states, good (G), and bad (B)

Transmission probability between the two states PGB and PBG present the error model.


An improved udp protocol for video transmission over internet to wireless networks
VPC Internet-to-Wireless Networks

GPER

FER

Fig. 5.


An improved udp protocol for video transmission over internet to wireless networks
LVPC Internet-to-Wireless Networks

GPER

FER

Fig. 6.


Internet to wireless vpc
Internet-to-wireless, VPC Internet-to-Wireless Networks

GPER

FER

Fig. 7.


Internet to wireless lvpc
Internet-to-wireless, LVPC Internet-to-Wireless Networks

GPER

FER

Fig. 8.


Cudp vpc lvpc
CUDP, VPC, LVPC Internet-to-Wireless Networks

GPER

FER

Fig. 9.


Psnr for internet wireless with vpc
PSNR for Internet + Wireless with VPC Internet-to-Wireless Networks

PSNR

Fig. 10.

FER


Psnr for internet wireless with vpc1
PSNR for Internet + Wireless with VPC Internet-to-Wireless Networks

PSNR

Congestion Packed Loss Rate

Fig. 11.


Psnr for internet wireless with vpc2
PSNR for Internet + Wireless with VPC Internet-to-Wireless Networks

PSNR

Fig. 12.


Conclusion 1 2
Conclusion (1/2) Internet-to-Wireless Networks

  • CUDP provides great flexibility for applications to utilize the instantaneous physical/link layer performance report. The media decoder has the right to decide whether to use or discard the packet.

  • CUDP outperforms the other two protocols. However, as the congestion packet loss rate grows, the advantage of CUDP shrinks.


Conclusion 2 2
Conclusion (2/2) Internet-to-Wireless Networks

  • Using CUDP, the received video maintains good quality.


Further work
Further Work Internet-to-Wireless Networks

  • Could the proposed system be applied to other packet video/audio/image?

  • Taking into account of the delay due to RLP layer…

  • And the packet loss due to real-time scheduling within wireless networks.