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1914-1918: The World at War. Differing Viewpoints. “Family Feud” “Fall of the Eagles” “The War to End All Wars” “The War to ‘Make the World Safe for Democracy’”. Causes of the War. 1. The Alliance System. Triple Entente : Great Britain, France, Russia. Triple Alliance :

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slide2

Differing Viewpoints

  • “Family Feud”
  • “Fall of the Eagles”
  • “The War to End All Wars”
  • “The War to ‘Make the World Safe for Democracy’”
slide4

1. The Alliance System

Triple Entente:

Great Britain, France, Russia

Triple Alliance:

Germany, Austria, Italy

formation of alliances
Formation of Alliances
  • Germany wanted to isolate from France so they could not regain Alsace Lorraine
  • Austria and Russia quarreling over the Balkans
  • Italy was angry at France for annexing Tunisia
  • Germany and Russia agreed to remain neutral if attacked. Treaty was dropped 2 years later by the Germans.
  • Russia and France signed treaty
  • British join with the French
alliance system
Alliance System
  • With the formation of both Alliances it became evident that any future conflict would lead to a world wide conflict.
series of crisis
Series of Crisis
  • In Africa a French takeover of Morocco angered the Germans.
  • In Europe conflicts in the Balkans continued to escalate
    • Austria annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina instead of allowing Serbians to rule independently
    • First and Second Balkan Wars (1912-1913) Ottoman Empire lost most European territories to European countries or to the newly created Albania
    • Armenian Genocide- over 1 million Armenian Christians killed by Muslim Ottomans
      • Ottomans believed Armenians were supporting Russia against the Ottomans
slide8

Two Armed Camps!

Allied Powers:

Central Powers:

slide9

The Major Players: 1914-17

Allied Powers:

Central Powers:

Nicholas II [Rus]

Wilhelm II [Ger]

George V [Br]

Victor Emmanuel II [It]

Enver Pasha[Turkey]

Pres. Poincare [Fr]

Franz Josef [A-H]

slide11

2. Militarism & Arms Race

Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s.

slide14

Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914

The“Powder Keg”of Europe

slide18

The Assassin:

GavriloPrincip

the coming of war
The Coming of War
  • The Leader of Austria was assassinated by Serbian Independence Group “The Black Hand”
  • Austria decides to crush Serbia
  • Russia declares war on Austria
  • Germany declares war on Russia, France
  • Britain declares war on Germany
  • Japan joined Triple Entente
  • Ottoman empire joined Central Powers
schlieffen plan
Schlieffen Plan
  • Germans sweep through Belgium, knock out France b/f Russia mobilizes
  • Held of by British- Trench Warfare begins
slide27

Trench Warfare

“No Man’s Land”

slide28

Verdun – February, 1916

  • German offensive.
  • Each side had 500,000 casualties.
slide29

The Somme – July, 1916

  • 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day.
  • Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.
slide35

The Airplane

“Squadron Over the Brenta”Max Edler von Poosch, 1917

slide37

FlameThrowers

GrenadeLaunchers

slide38

Poison Gas

Machine Gun

slide41

Recruits of the Central Powers

A German Soldier Says Farewell to His Mother

Austro-Hungarians

slide56

Spies

  • “Mata Hari”
  • Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle
  • German Spy!
eastern front
Eastern Front
  • Russian lost over 1 million casualties, drop out of war by 1917
  • Little gained or lost by either side
slide71

Fighting in Africa

Black Soldiers in the German Schutztruppen[German E. Africa]

British Sikh Mountain Gunners

slide72

Fighting in Africa

3rd British Battalion, Nigerian Brigade

slide73

Fighting in Salonika, Greece

French colonial marine infantry fromCochin, China - 1916

slide87

1918 Flu Pandemic: Depletes All Armies

50,000,000 – 100,000,000 died

slide92

Turkish Genocide Against Armenians

A Portent of Future Horrors to Come!

wwi ends
WWI Ends
  • WWI ends 11th hour, of 11th day, of 11th month, of 1918
  • The Big Four
    • Great Britain –Lloyd George
    • Italy- Orlando
    • Clemenceau- France
    • Wilson- United States
  • Treaty of Versailles
    • Germany lost Saar basin, Alsace and Lorraine-France

over 27,000

    • Germans paid war reparations-32 billion dollars
    • Germany forced to limit army and forbidden to maintain planes, tanks and naval ships
other effects of world war i
Other Effects of World War I
  • Formation of New Countries
    • Poland Recreated, Czechoslovakia created, Yugoslavia Created
  • LEAGUE OF NATIONS
  • Formation of an international organization to maintain peace and settle disputes
  • Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Points became basis
    • Point 1 renounced secret treaties; Point 2 dealt with freedom of the seas; Point 4 advocated arms reductions; Point 5 advocated solving colonial disputes internationally
  • Weakness
    • No peace keeping force
    • Little to no power
    • Had to rely on boycotts
other effects of wwi
Other Effects of WWI
  • Woman’s Suffrage
    • Following Women’s involvement in the War many nations across Europe granted women over 21 the right to vote beginning in 1918