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The American Presidents of the New Republic. 1789-1825. George Washington. Elected by first electoral college in 1789. Runner-up, John Adams, became the Vice-President Inaugurated at Federal Hall in NYC, April 30, 1789 Served two terms, 1789-1797. A New Government. Washington’s Challenges.

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The American Presidents of the New Republic

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george washington
George Washington
  • Elected by first electoral college in 1789.
  • Runner-up, John Adams, became the Vice-President
  • Inaugurated at Federal Hall in NYC, April 30, 1789
  • Served two terms, 1789-1797
washington s challenges
A New GovernmentWashington’s Challenges
  • Setting precedent
  • The Courts
    • John Jay, first Chief Justice
  • Washington’s Cabinet
    • Secretary of War Knox
    • Secretary of State Jefferson
    • Secretary of the Treasury Hamilton
    • Attorney General Randolph
notes what should you write down
Notes—What should you write down?
  • Washington’s Challenges
    • Setting up government and appointing people
      • CABINET=President’s advisors
      • Four departments
        • War, Treasury, State, Attorney General
washington s challenges1
Washington’s Challenges

Economic Problems

  • Repay war debts
  • Hamilton’s Financial Plan
    • Pay off debts
    • Raise gov’t revenue
    • Create a national bank
  • National Bank question shows two interpretations of Constitution

What do you think we should write down on our notes?

washington s challenges2
Washington’s Challenges

Securing the Northwest Territory

  • Issues with other nations’ claims to the area
  • Greatest threat from Native Americans
    • American army defeated 1790 and 1791
    • 1794, Battle of Fallen Timbers, America prevails against confederation of tribes
    • Treaty of Greenville
washington s challenges3
Washington’s Challenges

Whiskey Rebellion

  • Hamilton’s financial plan put a tax on Whiskey
  • Poor western farmers felt tax unfair
    • Whiskey an important product
    • West didn’t have easy access to CASH.
  • Rebellion breaks out 1794
    • Commissioners sent to discuss terms, first.
    • Put down by US Army

Work with a partner to take some notes!

compare contrast

Whiskey Rebellion

Boston Tea Party

washington s legacy
Washington’s Legacy
  • Two terms as President
  • Set precedents in how a President should behave and work with others
  • His wife, Martha Washington, set precedent for future First Ladies as well.
washington s farewell address
Washington’s Farewell Address
  • Farewell address:

“Let me now take a more comprehensive view, and warn you in the most solemn manner against the baneful effects of the spirit of party generally….It agitates the community with ill-founded jealousies and false alarms, kindles the animosity of one part against another, foments occasionally riot and insurrection….

So likewise, a passionate attachment of one nation for another produces a variety of evils….history and experience prove that foreign influence is one of the most baneful foes of republican government….”

Now take some notes ON YOUR OWN!

folded line
Folded Line

“[My] worthy fellow Citizens may be easy about me. I never can forsake what I take to be their Interests. My own have never been considered by me, in Competition with theirs. My Ease, my domestic Happiness, my rural Pleasures, my Little Property, my personal Liberty, my Reputation, my Life, have little Weight and ever had, in my own Estimation, in Comparison of the great Object of my Country. I can say of it with great Sincerity, as Horace says of Virtue—to America only and her Friends a Friend.”

Would you trust this speaker as a leader? Why or why not?

john adams
John Adams
  • Elected in 1796; served one term 1797-1801.
  • Runner-up in election (and thus Vice-President) was Thomas Jefferson—awKward!
  • Struggled with Democratic-Republicans as well as fellow Federalists
  • Served one term, 1797-1801
election of 1796
Election of 1796
  • Political Parties compete for the first time
election of 17961
Election of 1796
  • Federalist John Adams—71 Electoral Votes (PRESIDENT)
  • Democratic-Republican Thomas Jefferson—68 Electoral Votes (VICE-PRESIDENT)

Q: What kind of problems do you think this could cause?

foreign challenges
Foreign Challenges
  • France & Great Britain were at war. French seized American ships to stop them from trading with Britain
  • Many Americans (FEDERALISTS!) called for War
  • Charles Pickney, Elbridge Gerry, and John Marshall went to France to TALK and avoid war (Thus begins…the XYZ AFFAIR!)
    • Ignored for WEEKS
    • Then 3 French agents (X, Y, Z) promised talks if the Americans loaned France $10 million AND bribed the foreign minister with $250,000
    • American ministers refused; Americans at HOME were outraged!
  • Impact?
alien sedition acts
Alien & Sedition Acts
  • Partisan bickering only became worse
  • Adams blamed newspapers and new immigrants
  • Federalist-controlled Congress passed laws in 1798 to silence their critics:
    • Alien Acts: increased waiting period for becoming a US Citizen from 5 to 14 years; Pres. had power to arrest disloyal aliens or order them out of the country during wartime
    • Sedition Act: Outlawed saying or writing anything false or harmful about the government
  • About 25 Democratic-Republican newspaper editors were charged under the act and 10 were convicted
jefferson s epitaph
Jefferson’s Epitaph


BORN APRIL 2, 1743DIED JULY 4, 1826

election of 1800
Election of 1800
  • Nasty personal attacks between Federalists and Democratic-Republicans
    • Thomas Jefferson vs. John Adams
  • Democratic-Republican Jefferson, 73 votesFederalist Adams, 65 votesBUT…Democratic-Republican Aaron Burr ALSO had 73 votes!
  • Tie was broken in Federalist-controlled Congress
    • Hamilton threw his support to Jefferson; Burr became VP.
    • Burr never forgot!
thomas jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
  • Virginia Gentleman—built his home, Monticello, near Charlottesville
  • True Renaissance Man
  • Served in Continental Congress, ambassador to France, Secretary of State, Vice-President
  • Complex figure in American History
  • Served two terms, 1801-1809
a true democratic republican
A True Democratic-Republican
  • Promoted a common way of life—a nation of small, independent farmers
  • Believed in a modest role for the central gov’t
  • Ended many Federalist programs—Alien/Sedition acts, Whiskey tax
  • Reduced the number of federal employees and the size of the military
marbury v madison
Marburyv. Madison
  • Sec. of State Madison is sued because he refuses to give a last-minute Adams’ appointee (William Marbury) a federal position
  • Under the Judiciary Act of 1796, Marbury took the case to the Supreme Court.
  • Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that the law under which Marbury sued was unconstitutional
    • Establishing the principle of JUDICIAL REVIEW over federal laws:
      • The Supreme Court has the final say in interpreting the Constitution—on all levels.
the louisiana purchase 1803
The Louisiana Purchase, 1803
  • US farmers/merchants depended on the Mississippi River and the port of New Orleans
    • Negotiations between Spain & France threatened to close the port
  • Jefferson offered to buy New Orleans; Napoleon countered with an offer to buy ALL of the Louisiana Territory!
    • But…the Constitution said nothing about a President’s right to buy land!! What to do?
    • Oh well!! $15 million; 3 cents/acre!
  • New Elbow Room!
lewis clark and the corps of discovery
Lewis & Clark and The Corps of Discovery

Library of Congress Presentation: Fill Up the Canvas

impact of the expedition
Impact of the Expedition?
  • Accurate maps & new scientific knowledge
  • Growth of the fur trade
  • Took much of the fear out of the West
  • Opened relations with Native Americans
  • Increased Patriotism among Americans
the first lady formula
The First Lady Formula

First Lady, Dolley Madison

james madison
James Madison
  • Democratic-Republican from Virginia
  • Considered the Father of the Constitution
  • Served as Secretary of State, Vice President
  • Served two terms, 1809-1817
war of 1812
War of 1812

5-Finger Summary:

  • MAIN IDEAS go in the fingers
  • SUMMARY goes in the palm
the era of good feelings
“The Era of Good Feelings”
  • What do you think our country would be like in an “era of good feelings”?
  • Tea Party!
james monroe
James Monroe
  • Democratic-Republican from Virginia
  • Served as Ambassador to France
  • Jefferson said of him, 'Monroe was so honest that if you turned his soul inside out there would not be a spot on it.’
  • Served two terms, 1817-1825
  • Presided over an “Era of Good Feelings” when nationalism and a strong economy swept the country
  • The country became united under an economic system that encouraged American businesses, promoted a single currency, and improved the country’s transportation systems
  • Political loyalties shift to National Government and partisanship begin to die out.
  • Supreme Court cases strengthened the power of the Federal government
    • McCulloch v. Maryland
    • Gibbons v. Ogden
  • National boundaries set with other nations
    • 49th parallel to the N.
    • Adams-Onis Treaty
  • Industrial Revolution sparked by new inventions and technologies
    • Factory system
    • Interchangeable parts
    • Steam power
    • Canals
    • Telegraph
    • Reaper
    • Steel plow
    • Etc.
  • Encouraged growth of American business and her economy
  • Industrialization and the new Nationalism also led to increased SECTIONALISM
  • Definition: Loyalty to the interests of your own region or section of the country, rather than to the nation as a whole
  • New technologies encouraged INDUSTRY in the North, and encouraged the growth of AGRICULTURE (especially cotton!) in the South
    • Spread of cotton plantations = growth of slavery!
  • Sectional economies relied on different things and the interests of each often came into conflict
    • West—settlers want cheap land and good transportation
    • North—wealth based on manufacturing
    • South—cotton and slavery
missouri question
Missouri Question
  • 1817, Missouri applies for statehood. As a slave state OR as a free state, Missouri would throw off the delicate balance in government (11 free states; 11 slave states)
  • Could the federal government ban slavery in a state?
  • Southerners warned: “If you persist, the Union will be dissolved. You have kindled a fire which all the waters of the ocean cannot put out, which seas of blood can only extinguish.” —Thomas Cobb
  • Missouri Compromise (1820): Missouri enters Union as a slave state; Maine enters Union as a free state; slavery banned in territories north of 36 degrees, 30’.
monroe doctrine
Monroe Doctrine
  • 1823, Monroe gave a statement in his State of the Union that came to be known as the Monroe Doctrine
  • Main Points
    • Americas were closed to further colonization
    • European efforts to reestablish lost colonies would be considered a threat to the United States
    • United States would stay out of European affairs
  • What’s the big deal?
media sources
Media sources