When? • War: 1937-1945 • US involvement 1941-1945 1937 1939 1941 1945 July– Japan invades China, Rape of Nanking Dec. 7 – Japan bombs Pearl Harbor; US enters the War May - Germany Surrender Sept. 3 -Britain & France declare war on Germany Aug. - Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima & Nagasaki, Japanese Surrender Sept.1- Germany invades Poland (official start to the war)
Who was involved? Axis Allies (major powers) (major powers) Great Britain Germany The U.S.S.R. (Russia) Italy Japan United States France (France surrendered to Germany in 1940)
Causes of WWII • WWI and the Treaty of Versailles • Appeasement • Rise of Totalitarianism The Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I blamed and humiliated Germany European countries wanted to avoid another war so they let Hitler have whatever he wanted When citizens give up their civil rights to leaders for “the good of the Nation”
Major Leaders Adolf Hitler Chancellor and Head of State of Nazi Germany Benito Mussolini Prime Minister and Head of Government of Italy
Major Leaders Hideki Tojo Japanese Prime Minister Japan was know for its KamakaziWarfare: suicide bombers who flew into targets
Major Leaders Winston Churchill British Prime Minister Charles de Gaulle French General
Major Leaders Joseph Stalin Soviet Union Premiere - Leader Franklin Delano Roosevelt United States President
Humiliation of Germany The Treaty of Versailles which ended WWI devastated and humiliated Germany by placing complete blame on them for a war they didn’t start. Germany was forced to pay for damages done to other counties and lost its overseas territories.
World-wide Depression The Depression made Germany’s debt even worse. Hitler seemed to provide solutions to Germany’s problems. “We protest against the view that every other nation should have rights - and we have none… We have both the hope and the faith that Germany will and must once more become great and mighty” (Hitler 1923). 1923 - Wallpapering with German Deutchmarks
The Coming of WWII Hitler blamed the humiliation of Germany on the Jews and vowed to murder them all to “save” Germany and “purify” Europe. “Today I will once more be a prophet: if the international Jewish financiers in and outside Europe should succeed in plunging the nations once more into a world war, then the result will not be the Bolshevizing (spreading communism) of the earth and thus the victory of Jewry, but the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe!” - Adolph Hitler Why does Hitler believe Jewish people must be killed?
The Coming of WWII Japanwanted to expand and build their industry to become more powerful. In 1931, Japan invaded Manchuria for iron and coal. Japan also wanted to take the large numbers of natural resources and food from China to boost their economy
Holocaust The Holocaustwas Hitler’s Nazi Party’s attack on the Jewsbetween1933and1945. In 1939, Europe Jews were forced to live in Ghettos.
Holocaust ARMBANDS - Jews were required to wear arm bands so they could be identified easily. In 1935 Hitler passed the Nuremberg Laws which stripped the civil rights of Jewish Germans. What American Laws do these remind you of?
Holocaust By 1939 the Nazis begin building “camps” to keep Jews in. Oswiecim (Auschwitz) in Poland was created in 1940, one of the most deadly concentration camps.
Appeasement People were anxious to avoid another world war yet Hitler was a growing power and terror in Europe. For years Britain and France relied on appeasement (granting concessions to enemies to maintain peace) to avoid war but there was no satisfying Hitler. What happened in Europe that people were so scared of war?
United States Isolationism in 1930s The desire to avoid involvement in foreign wars was called isolationism. Isolationists were not necessarily pacifists (against war). Most isolationists simply wanted to preserve America’s freedom to choose the time and place for action.
United States Isolationism in 1930s Roosevelt was not an isolationist; however, he was focused on solving problems at home by implementing his New Deal programs to ease the Great Depression.
Road to World War II Who are the people Hitler’s is walking over? What is the cartoonist saying about appeasement?
August 1939: Germany and the U.S.S.R. signed a Non-Aggression Pact The Non-Aggression pact promises that neither country would attackthe other and would divide the country of Poland. As part of the deal, Hitler promised Stalin part of Poland, which he planned to invade. How is the Non-Aggression Pact similar to appeasement? Photo: Russian foreign minister signing the pact, whilst Stalin stands smiling in the background
WWII Begins In 1937, Japan invaded China. In December, Japan invaded the capitol (at the time) Nanking. 300,000+ citizens were tortured, raped, and murdered. This was known as the Rape of Nanking and many consider it a Holocaust. Why did extreme nationalism cause Japan to torture another group of people?
WWII Begins On September 1st 1939, Germany invaded Poland without warning. By the evening of September 3rd, Britain and France declared war on Germany. Australia, New Zealand, Canada and South Africa joined within a week.
Devastation in Europe • Blitzkrieg “Lightning War” In the next year, Hitler invades: Denmark, Norway The Netherlands, and France Europe was being destroyed
Hitler goes back on his word In May, 1941, Hitler decided to halt the bombing of Britain and began attacking the Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.), betraying Stalin and the “Non-aggression Pact.” This was a bold move that would prove to be an important turning point in the War.
United States Prepares for War U.S. Congress began a peacetime draftto the army in 1940 and set quotas for factories to supply weapons, ships, and planes to the Allied Powers. Roosevelt wanted to make the United States an “arsenal of democracy” to supply weapons to Allied Powers. Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act, which allowed the nation to send weapons to Great Britain. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill met secretly in 1941. They agreed to the Atlantic Charter. This document was an agreement that the United States and Britain had the same goals in opposing Hitler and his Axis Powers.
United States Prepares for War The U.S. cut off oil supplies to Japan after the invasion of China hoping to stop the invasion. “In the Pacific Ocean is our fleet. Some of our people like to believe that wars in Europe and in Asia are of no concern to us. But it is a matter of most vital concern to us that European and Asiatic war-makers should not gain control of the oceans which lead to this hemisphere.” Roosevelt - Fireside Chat, December 1940 Was the U.S. really neutral?
“a date which will live in infamy” The U.S. wouldn’t stay out of the war for long. The Japanese launched a surprise attack on the American forces in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. U.S. declares war on Japan & Axis powers USS Arizona Sinking in Pearl Harbor
The Attack on Pearl Harbor • Defenses • U.S military thought an attack on Pearl Harbor was possible. • However forces at the base were unprepared to defend it. • No single commander was in charge. • Routine defensive steps were not in place. • The Attack • On December 7, 1941, the Japanese attacked. • War planes loaded with bombs and torpedoes left the carriers and destroyed American ships and planes. • The attack lasted 2 hours. • The Aftermath • All8 battleships were damaged; 4 were sunk. • Nearly 200 aircraft were destroyed. • Some 2,400 Americans were dead. • Japan lost only a handful of submarines and fewer than 30 planes.
Japan’s 3 Main Objectives • Japanese wanted to destroy American Naval Fleets • Japan hoped this attack would buy time to strengthen their navy and consolidate their position as an emerging world power. • The Japanese believed this attack would damage American morale so the U.S. would not interfere at all in Japan’s attempt to conquer Southeast Asia. How did the bombing of Pearl Harbor backfire on Japan?
The Battle of Bataan, Philippines The next day, Japan invaded the Bataan peninsula of the Philippines. Americans were stationed in the Philippines since the Spanish-American War. Japanwon the battle – largest surrender of Americans – very hard defeat – Axis Powers winning the war!