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Controlling Diesel Particulate Matter Exposures in Underground Mines. William H. Pomroy George P. Saseen Mine Safety and Health Administration pomroy.william@dol.gov 218-720-5448 saseen.george@dol.gov 304-547-2072. Available Control Strategies. Ventilation Environmental Cabs

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controlling diesel particulate matter exposures in underground mines

Controlling Diesel Particulate Matter Exposures in Underground Mines

William H. Pomroy

George P. Saseen

Mine Safety and Health Administration

pomroy.william@dol.gov

218-720-5448

saseen.george@dol.gov

304-547-2072

available control strategies
Available Control Strategies
  • Ventilation
  • Environmental Cabs
  • Administrative Controls
  • Diesel Engines
  • Fuels
  • Maintenance
  • Biodiesel Fuel
  • DPM Exhaust Filters

Exposure

Controls

Emission

Reduction

ventilation
VENTILATION
  • Widely used method for DPM control
  • DPM reduction proportional to air flow
    • Double air flow = 50% DPM reduction
  • Ventilation can be costly

Major upgrades: 16’ dia shaft = $1000/ft

Electricity: 250K cfm @ 1” WG = 40 HP

40 HP x 100 hrs/wk @ 10¢/kw-hr = $15K/yr

2x airflow = 8x HP = 8x electricity cost

Q: How much air is enough?

A: Depends on DPM control strategy

how much air is enough
How Much Air Is Enough?
  • PI = Particulate Index = Airflow quantity required to dilute DPM emissions to 1,000 µg/m3
  • 2x PI ►500DPMµg/m3 = 400TCµg/m3 = 308ECµg/m3
  • PI’s for MSHA Approved engines listed on internet (link to MSHA DPM Single Source Page)
  • Examples:
    • Cat 3306 PCTA 215 HP PI = 31,000 cfm
    • Cat 3176 ATAAC 270 HP PI = 7500 cfm
  • Boosting air flow a good start, but also need to direct air where needed
    • Eliminate short circuits and recirculation paths
    • Ensure coverage in all working areas and faces
series ventilation room and pillar
Series Ventilation - Room-and-Pillar

Intake

Return

Face Line

Face Line

dead ends fan and vent bag9
Dead Ends - Fan and Vent Bag

Airflow

Auxiliary Ventilation

dead ends fan and vent bag10
Dead Ends - Fan and Vent Bag

Airflow

Auxiliary Ventilation

dead ends free standing fan12
Dead Ends - Free Standing Fan

Airflow

Auxiliary Ventilation

dead ends free standing fan13
Dead Ends - Free Standing Fan

Airflow

Auxiliary Ventilation

natural ventilation
Natural Ventilation
  • NVP= 0.03”wg per 100 feet per 10oF
  • For 100’ Shaft and 40o change (15º to 95º)

NVP = 0.03 x 100/100 x 40/10 = 0.12” WG

  • 0.12” WG ► 20K to 50K cfm (typical)
  • 0.12” WG maximum value - - usually less!
  • Not sufficient for DPM dilution
  • Reverses from summer to winter
  • Very low (sometimes zero) spring and fall
ventilation16
Ventilation
  • Ensure sufficient air volume based on
    • Equipment emissions – PI’s
    • Other DPM controls
  • Natural ventilation insufficient - need fans
  • Distribute air where needed
    • Brattice, long pillars, rock/waste filled CX
    • Need to advance and maintain ventilation controls
    • May need boosters/auxiliary fans
  • May need to consult with mine ventilation specialist
environmental cabs
Environmental Cabs
  • Environmental Cabs Can:
    • Reduce DPM exposure and EC levels
    • Reduce noise exposure
    • Reduce silica dust exposure
  • Cabs Should Be:
    • Tight - seal openings, repair broken windows
    • Pressurized with filtered breathing air (follow regular filter change-out schedule - 250 hr)
    • Operated with doors/windows closed (may need air conditioning)
    • Maintained in good condition
cab pressurization monitoring
Cab Pressurization Monitoring

Magnehelic gage with

rubber hose extending

into cab

Magnehelic gage should

register + 0.20“ WG or more

cab pressurization monitoring20
Cab Pressurization Monitoring
  • Magnehelic gage should register at least 0.20” WG. If not, check:
    • Outside air vs. recirculate control setting. Should be set on outside air.
    • Fan capacity vs. cab volume. Goal should be 1 air change per minute. 100 cubic foot cab requires 100 cfm pressurizer - - 300 cubic foot cab requires 300 cfm pressurizer.
    • Openings into cab. Close and seal openings.
    • Air filter. Replace if dirty/clogged.
    • Intake duct. Remove obstructions, repair and seal holes/damage
environmental cabs21
Environmental Cabs

Gap in window seal

Cab air filter and

pressurizing fan

Hoses entering cab

administrative controls
Administrative Controls
  • Control DPM exposures through operating procedures, work practices, etc.
  • Job rotation prohibited as DPM administrative control [§57.5060(e)]
    • Job rotation means assigning a job to more than one worker so that each worker does the assigned job for only part of a shift
    • Job rotation spreads exposure to more workers
    • In accordance with good industrial hygiene practice, job rotation not acceptable for control of exposure to carcinogens
examples of work practices
Examples of Work Practices
  • Work Practices Can Affect Emissions And DPM Concentrations
    • Minimize engine idling
    • Avoid lugging engines (low RPM - high load)
    • Keep fuel and lube oil clean
    • Traffic control
      • Route traffic away from areas where miners work outside cabs
      • Route haul trucks in return air, especially when ascending ramps loaded
      • Limit HP in work area based on available CFM’s
    • Schedule blasters on non-production shifts
57 5067 a engines
§ 57.5067 (a) Engines
  • Any Diesel Engine Introduced Underground
    • (a)(1) Have Affixed A Plate Evidencing Approval Under Subpart E of Part 7, Or Under Part 36
    • (a)(2) Meet Or Exceed The Applicable PM Emission Requirements Of The U.S. EPA Listed In Table 57.5067-1
msha approval no s
MSHA Approval No.s
  • Permissible Engines:

7E-A001 or 07-EPA030001

  • Non-permissible Engines

7E-B001 or 07-ENA030001

  • Internet Listing of MSHA Approved engines
  • https://lakegovprod1.msha.gov/ReportView.aspx?ReportCategory=EngineAppNumbers
epa dpm limits msha table 57 5067 1
EPA DPM LimitsMSHA Table 57.5067-1
  • Hp < 11 0.75 g/bhp-hr Tier 1 MY2000
  • 11≤ HP<25 0.60 g/bhp-hr Tier 1 MY2000
  • 25≤ HP<50 0.60 g/bhp-hr Tier 1 MY1999
  • 50 ≤ HP < 100 0.30 g/bhp-hr Tier 2 MY2004
  • 100 ≤ HP < 175 0.22 g/bhp-hr Tier 2 MY2003
  • 175 ≤ HP < 750 0.40 g/bhp-hr Tier 1 MY1996
  • Hp ≥ 750 0.40 g/bhp-hr Tier 1 MY2000
engine combustion design
Engine Combustion Design
  • Pre 1993 Direct Injection Engines
    • 0.5 – 1.0 gm/hp-hr.
  • Indirect Injection (Pre Chamber) Engines
    • 0.3 – 0.5 gm/hp-hr.
  • Post 1993 Direct Injection Engines
    • High Pressure Fuel Direct Injection
    • Turbocharged
    • Computerized Electronic Fuel Injection
    • 0.05 – 0.2 gm/hp-hr for the higher horsepower engines
  • 2001 - EPA Tier 2 for all horsepowers range from 0.15 g/bhp-hr to 0.60 g/bhp-hr
engine out emissions
Engine Out Emissions
  • Total Emissions =

Hp specific emissions x

Horsepower x

Hours of use.

total engine out emissions
Total Engine Out Emissions

Emissions x Horsepower x Hours = DPM

  • Loader:

0.1 x 275 x 8 = 220 grams

  • Drill:

0.5 x 150 x 4 = 300 grams

three strikes and it s out
Three Strikes and It’s Out
  • Strikes:
    • High horsepower (greater than 150),
    • High emissions (greater than 0.3 gm/hp-hr),
    • High use (greater than 6 hours per shift).
  • Target Equipment:
    • Production Loaders and Trucks (primary),
    • Drills and Scalers (secondary)
    • PC engines (specialty mining equipment).
  • One bad engine can spoil the entire fleet.
clean engines vs ventilation
Clean Engines vs. Ventilation
  • Clean engines reduce emissions by 80 to 90%.
    • Fuel savings pay for engine in 2 to 3 years.
  • Estimate that 80% of engines are currently Tier 1 or better.
  • Ventilation remains important, must be able to remove DPM and other exhaust gases
epa tier 3
EPA Tier 3
  • 50 ≤ HP < 100 Tier 3 MY2008
  • 100 ≤ HP < 175 Tier 3 MY2007
  • 175 ≤ HP < 750 Tier 3 MY2006
  • NOX reductions only, no change in DPM
epa tier 4
EPA Tier 4
  • Hp < 25 Tier 4 MY2008
  • 25≤HP<75 Tier 4 MY2008 & 2013
  • 75≤HP<175 Tier 4 MY2012 - 2014
  • 175≤HP<750 Tier 4 MY2011 - 2014
  • Hp ≥ 750 Tier 4 MY2011 - 2015
  • Substantial DPM reductions above 25 hp
  • Substantial NOX reductions above 75 hp
diesel fuel
Diesel Fuel
  • MSHA §57.5065 requires diesel fuel with a sulfur content of less than 0.05 percent (500 ppm)
  • EPA requirement for on-highway diesel fuel to be at 0.0015 percent (15 ppm) sulfur by mid – 2006
  • EPA requirement for non-road diesel fuel to be at 0.0015 percent (15 ppm) sulfur by 2010
fuel additives and fuel catalyst
Fuel Additives and Fuel Catalyst
  • Combustion Enhancers
    • Cetane booster
  • Lubricity Increasers
  • Fuel Catalyst Devices:
    • Rentar
    • ECONET - Magnet technology
alternative fuel testing
Alternative Fuel Testing
  • D1 / Jet A / Kerosene – 10 to 20 % reduction
  • Bio-Diesel Blends – 15 to 50+ % reduction
  • Water Emulsions – 50 – 75 % reductions
  • Synthetic Fuels – Synpar 200 and S2 – 30% reductions
synthetic fuels
Synthetic Fuels
  • MSHA Laboratory Tested 2 Types
  • SYNPAR 200 – Solvent Based
  • S-2 – Derived from Methane
  • Approximate 31% reduction in EC
  • Associated 4 – 6% loss in horsepower at sea level (1000 feet)
  • Similar Results at High Altitude, 7500 feet (simulated)
slide39

PuriNOx™

  • A diesel emissions control technology
    • A means of reducing NOx and PM from diesel engine exhaust
  • An emulsified diesel fuel (EDF)
    • Contains up to 20% emulsified water
    • Stable emulsion
    • Skim milk in appearance and consistency
    • When dyed for off-road, looks like “Pepto Bismal”
engine maintenance
Engine Maintenance
  • Cleaning: Engine, Radiators, Air/Oil Coolers
  • Intake Systems: Air Filters, Turbo Boost Pressures, Leaks
  • Exhaust Systems: Backpressure, Leaks
  • Cooling Systems
  • Fuel Systems: Proper Settings, Altitude
  • Electronic Controlled Systems
  • Emission Tests
exhaust leaks
Exhaust Leaks
  • No holes upstream
  • No loose joints
  • No evidence of leaks, ie: black streaks on pipes or near exhaust outlets
  • Check flanges on Catalytic Converters and DPM Filters
  • Make sure Disposable Filters are Properly Sealed when installed
check backpressure gauge
Check backpressure gauge
  • Backpressure is an indication that the filter is loading up with dpm
  • Each engine has maximum allowable backpressure specification. Engine specification is listed by engine manufacturer and filter manufacturer
  • Backpressure is a good indicator for changing or cleaning the filter.
  • If backpressure exceeds limit, then engine and filter can be damaged.
slide43
Procedure to determine exhaust backpressure
    • A Magnehelic gauge is normally used to measure the backpressure.
    • Install backpressure gauge prior to the filter or other control device.
    • Run engine at high idle and loaded engine condition
    • Verify that backpressure is below allowable limit
slide44

Ceramic Filter

Catalytic Converter

Engine

Total Backpressure

BP1

BP measured at BP1 can increase to the maximum allowable backpressure before the filter needs cleaned

Deutz BF4M2011 - 30 inches H2O

Detroit Diesel OM904LA - 44 inches H2O

slide45

Gaseous Emission Check

  • Torque stall the machine to achieve maximum load on the engine
  • Use a gas analyzer that has a sample probe that can be placed directly in the exhaust gas stream, normally before any control devices
  • The concentration or changes in concentration of CO above baseline will indicate a change in engine performance.
  • Some mines are using a doubling of the baseline as an action level.
biodiesel what is it
Biodiesel - What is it?
  • EPA registered diesel fuel
  • Designated alternative fuel per DOT, DOE
  • 100% biodiesel, neat biodiesel, B100
  • Biodiesel blend - biodiesel mixed with petrodiesel, called Bxx where xx is the volume % of biodiesel in the blend
    • B20 – 20% biodiesel, B2 – 2% biodiesel
  • Biodiesel is “drop-in” replacement for standard diesel. Any diesel engine will run on biodiesel.
biodiesel where does it come from
Biodiesel – Where does it come from?
  • (Catalyst)
  • 100 pounds + 10 pounds 10 pounds + 100 pounds
  • Triglyceride Alcohol Glycerine Mono-Alkyl Esters
  • Ingredients:
  • Triglycerides………..Soy oil, corn oil, canola oil, beef tallow pork lard, used cooking oil
  • Alcohol………………Methanol, ethanol
  • Catalyst:………………Sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide
  • Product:
  • Mono-Alkyl Esters….Biodiesel
  • Raw Vegetable Oil is NOT Biodiesel ! ! !
  • Biodiesel must meet ASTM D 6751-06
biodiesel properties
Biodiesel Properties
  • High Cetane number
  • Ultra Low Sulfur (averages ~ 2 ppm)
  • High Lubricity, even in blends as low as B1 and B2. Can blend with ULS diesel
  • Reduces emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of sulfur, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and total hydrocarbons
  • High flash point
  • Solvent and cleaning properties
biodiesel and dpm emissions
Biodiesel and DPM Emissions
  • NIOSH PRL isolated zone study, Stillwater mine at Nye, MT
  • Simulated load-haul-dump mining cycle
    • Cat Elphinstone R1300, 3.7 yd3
    • Cat 3306 DITA de-rated to 165 hp w/OCC
    • Constant ventilation, intake in fresh air
    • #2 diesel compared to B20 and B50 soy biodiesel fuel
  • B20 produced 26% EC reduction
  • B50 produced 48% EC reduction
biodiesel and dpm emissions52
Biodiesel and DPM Emissions
  • MSHA Tech Support compliance assistance at Carmeuse Lime and Stone – area samplesEC reductions (compared to D2)
  • Maysville Mine
    • B20 (recycled vegetable oil)35%
    • B50 (recycled vegetable oil)71%
    • B50 (virgin soy oil)49%
  • Black River Mine
    • B35 (recycled vegetable oil)33%
    • B35 (virgin soy oil) 16%
biodiesel and dpm emissions53
Biodiesel and DPM Emissions

Detroit Salt Company, MSHA compliance samples, EC

Standard D2 100% Biodiesel

500

400

300

200

100

0

Elemental Carbon, EC, µg/m3

2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

Year

biodiesel and dpm emissions54
Biodiesel and DPM Emissions

Durham Mine, MSHA compliance samples, EC

Standard D2 100% Biodiesel

500

400

300

200

100

0

Elemental Carbon, EC, µg/m3

2003 2004 2005 2006

Year

biodiesel and dpm emissions55
Biodiesel and DPM Emissions

Ft. Dodge Mine, MSHA compliance samples, EC

Standard D2 99% Biodiesel

500

400

300

200

100

0

Elemental Carbon, EC, µg/m3

2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

Year

biodiesel and dpm emissions56
Biodiesel and DPM Emissions

Weeping Water Mine, MSHA compliance samples, EC

Standard D2 100% Biodiesel

500

400

300

200

100

0

Elemental Carbon, EC, µg/m3

2003 2004 2005 2006

Year

biodiesel and dpm emissions57
Biodiesel and DPM Emissions

Hutchinson Salt Co., MSHA compliance samples, EC

Standard D2 100% Biodiesel

500

400

300

200

100

0

Elemental Carbon, EC, µg/m3

2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

Year

biodiesel and dpm emissions58
Biodiesel and DPM Emissions
  • Diesel Emissions Evaluation Program (DEEP) study at INCO Creighton Mine, Sudbury, ON
  • Univ. of MN, MI Tech Univ., INCO, NIOSH, CANMET, ORTECH
  • Isolated zone, simulated L-H-D cycle
  • Wagner ST-8, Deutz F12L413W, 275 hp, OCC
  • Week 1: #2 diesel Week 2: B50 soy biodiesel
  • EC reduced by 28.6% with B50
  • No statistically significant changes in NO or NO2 levels
biodiesel and dpm emissions59
Biodiesel and DPM Emissions
  • Former US Bureau of Mines research
  • Laboratory testing
    • Deutz/MWM 6.3 liter NA, EPA 8-mode testing
    • DPM reduced 50% with B100 vs. #2 diesel
  • Field testing, Homestake mine, Lead, SD
    • Wagner 3.5 yd3 LHD, Cat 3306 PCNA, 134 hp, OCC, 6 week test
    • DPM reduced 72-80% with B100 vs. #2 diesel
    • Higher DPM reduction vs. lab testing attributed to heavier duty cycles in mine
    • Miners commented on lower smoke levels
biodiesel dpm gaseous emissions
Biodiesel DPM & Gaseous Emissions
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) per Clean Air Act Section 211(b)

B100B20

Diesel Particulate Matter - 47% - 12%

Carbon Monoxide - 48% - 12%

NOX (NO + NO2) + 10% + 2%

Total Hydrocarbons - 67% - 20%

PAH - 80% - 13%

Sulfates - 100% - 20%

biodiesel and gaseous emissions
Biodiesel and Gaseous Emissions

NIOSH PRL isolated zone study, Stillwater mine at Nye, MT

B20 w/OCC vs. #2 diesel w/OCC

CO no change (both were zero)

CO2 no change

NO - 5.8%

NO2 - 5.5%

B50 w/OCC vs. #2 diesel w/OCC

CO no change (both were zero)

CO2 no change

NO + 4.4%

NO2 + 5.5%

biodiesel costs
Biodiesel Costs
  • Historically, B100 costs about $1.00 per gallon more than standard #2 diesel
  • Blender’s federal excise tax credit amounts to 1¢ per gallon per % biodiesel (virgin feedstock), thus:
    • B99.9 (virgin feedstock) receives federal excise tax credit of about $1.00 per gallon
    • B50 (virgin feedstock) receives federal excise tax credit of 50¢ per gallon
  • When diesel prices spiked in late summer 2005 and spring 2006, B100 was cheaper than #2 diesel in some areas, after tax credit applied
biodiesel costs63
Biodiesel Costs

Diesel prices, selected US cities, 06-09-2006

(fuel prices do not include taxes, tax credits or subsidies)

Source: Alternative Fuels Index, EMI

B100#2 diesel∆ w/o credit∆ w/credit

Albany, NY $3.17 $2.24 + $0.93 - $0.07

Billings, MT $3.41 $2.44 + $0.97 - $0.03

Charleston, WV $3.41 $2.30 + $1.11 + $0.11

Chicago, IL $3.31 $2.27 + $1.04 + $0.04

Indianapolis, IN $3.34 $2.26 + $1.08 + $0.08

Louisville, KY $3.37 $2.29 + $1.08 + $0.08

Pittsburgh, PA $3.40 $2.23 + $1.17 + $0.17

Seattle, WA $3.37 $2.32 + $1.05 + $0.05

US Average $3.37 $2.29 + $1.08 + $0.08

biodiesel availability
Biodiesel Availability
  • Available in all states except Alaska
  • 8 BQ-9000 accredited producers
  • Over 1400 commercial distributors
  • Over 750 retail filling stations
  • National Biodiesel Board on-line guide to buying biodiesel:

http://www.nbb.org/buyingbiodiesel/guide/default.shtm

  • Purchasers should specify fuel meeting ASTM D6751-06 requirements
slide65

Current Biodiesel Plants

2004 Production: 25,000,000 Gallons

2005 Production: 75,000,000 Gallons

Current Production Capacity: 395,000,000 Gallons

slide66

Construction - 50

Expansion - 8

Pre-construction - 36

Future Biodiesel Plants

58 Plants under construction/expansions: 714M gal

36 Plants in pre-construction phase: 755M gal

biodiesel use issues b20
Biodiesel Use Issues (>B20)
  • Cold weather
    • Below cloud point, need heated storage tanks, indoor storage, fuel line heaters, etc.
  • Solvent/cleaning properties
    • Biodiesel can soften and degrade certain elastomers. Need to replace natural rubber, butyl rubber, nitrile, etc. with Teflon® or Viton®
    • Biodiesel dissolves and removes sediments from fuel tanks and lines
    • Need to clean out tanks and lines and/or be prepared to replace filters frequently until systems fully cleaned
biodiesel use issues b2070
Biodiesel Use Issues (>B20)
  • Long term storage stability
    • Recommend use within 6 months of manufacture
    • If stored longer than 6 months, should test for acid number
  • Engine oil change intervals
    • Due to higher viscosity, more biodiesel may pass over piston rings and into oil pan
    • Biodiesel may polymerize and cause engine sludge problems
    • May need to change oil more often
biodiesel use issues b2071
Biodiesel Use Issues (>B20)
  • Energy content
    • Biodiesel has 8-10% lower energy content than #2 diesel resulting in lower peak power output delivered by engine
    • Generally not noticeable with B2 to B20
    • May be evident with high biodiesel blends when engine operates under heavy load
    • Effect usually not significant due to mixed duty cycle (idle, low, medium, high loads)
    • Better cleaning, lubricity may compensate
    • Fuel usage usually higher than #2 diesel
biodiesel use issues b2072
Biodiesel Use Issues (>B20)
  • Engine warranties
    • Engines are warranted against defects in materials and workmanship. Engine warranties do not cover fuel, either biodiesel or standard petroleum diesel.
    • Many manufacturers have issued “position statements” on the use of biodiesel fuel
    • Example from Cummins on-line “fact sheet”:

“Cummins neither approves or disapproves of the use of

biodiesel fuel. …The use of biodiesel fuel does not affect

Cummins Material and Workmanship warranty. Failures

caused by the use of biodiesel fuels or other fuel additives

are NOT defects of workmanship and/or materials as supplied

by Cummins Inc. and CANNOT be compensated under the

Cummins’ warranty.”

biodiesel and dpm filters
Biodiesel and DPM Filters
  • Biodiesel can produce significant DPM reductions in engines that would not be good candidates for DPM filters due to very high rates of DPM generation.
    • Some MSHA Approved engines and older “grandfathered” engines still in use at mines may produce 0.5-1.0 g/bhp-hr of DPM
  • Some evidence suggests that DPM passive filters regenerate at a lower temperature (≈ 20-30º C) when engines are run on biodiesel compared to standard petroleum diesel. More research data needed to verify.
biodiesel resources
Biodiesel Resources
  • National Biodiesel Board is the national trade association representing the biodiesel industry and the coordinating body for research and development in the United States. Their internet web address is: www.biodiesel.org
  • “Biodiesel Handling and Use Guidelines” US Dept. of Energy, publication # DOE-GO-102006-2288, 2nd edition, March 2006
  • DieselNet, an on-line information service for clean diesel engines and diesel emissions:

www.dieselnet.com

diesel particulate filters dpf
Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF)
  • Filters filter.
  • 80 to 99% efficient.
  • Operational issues.
  • Control Technologies:

http://www.msha.gov/01-995/Coal/DPM-FilterEfflist.pdf

ceramic wall flow dpm filter84
Ceramic Wall Flow DPM Filter

Gases Pass

Through Ceramic

DPM Trapped

On Substrate

back pressure heavy duty cycle causes engine to work harder increasing exhaust temperature
Back Pressure, Heavy Duty Cycle Causes Engine To Work Harder, Increasing Exhaust Temperature

Substrate

Substrate

hotter exhaust ignites dpm dpm burns off of substrate co 2 passes through substrate
Hotter Exhaust Ignites DPMDPM “Burns Off” Of SubstrateCO2 Passes Through Substrate

Substrate

Substrate

CO2

CO2

hotter exhaust ignites dpm dpm burns off of substrate co 2 passes through substrate94
Hotter Exhaust Ignites DPMDPM “Burns Off” Of SubstrateCO2 Passes Through Substrate

Substrate

CO2

CO2

hotter exhaust ignites dpm dpm burns off of substrate co 2 passes through substrate95
Hotter Exhaust Ignites DPMDPM “Burns Off” Of SubstrateCO2 Passes Through Substrate

Substrate

CO2

CO2

hotter exhaust ignites dpm dpm burns off of substrate co 2 passes through substrate96
Hotter Exhaust Ignites DPMDPM “Burns Off” Of SubstrateCO2 Passes Through Substrate

Substrate

CO2

CO2

hotter exhaust ignites dpm dpm burns off of substrate co 2 passes through substrate97
Hotter Exhaust Ignites DPMDPM “Burns Off” Of SubstrateCO2 Passes Through Substrate

Substrate

CO2

CO2

slide99
Regeneration of Ceramic Filters
    • Passive - Ceramic Filters are regenerated on board the machine. Exhaust gas temperature is used to generate the heat needed to burn off the dpm
    • Active - Ceramic Filters are regenerated either on board or off board the machine. An external heat source is needed to burn off the dpm
    • May be combination of both passive and active
    • If the correct regeneration method is not used, the filter will clog with dpm
choosing a ceramic dpf
Choosing a Ceramic DPF
  • NIOSH and MSHA developed a DPF Selection Guide
    • http://www.msha.gov/nioshmnmfilterselectionguide/dpmfilterguide.htm
  • Provides information for choosing the correct DPF, Do’s and Don'ts
  • Exhaust Temperature Profiles/Traces
  • How to apply the information
guidelines for passive regeneration dpf
Guidelines for Passive Regeneration DPF
  • Based on temperature profile of engine exhaust, if:
    • T30% >550oC, Uncatalyzed “bare” trap,
    • T30% >420oC, Base-metal catalyzed trap,
    • T30% >365oC, Heavily Pt-catalyzed trap,
    • T30% >330oC, Lightly Pt-catalyzed trap plus fuel borne catalyst.
slide108
Active Systems

Off – Board

Regeneration

  • Keep DPM filter small enough for one person to handle
  • Locate for easy access
  • Gas-tight, quick connects
  • Develop exchange logistics: When, Where, How to Transport
active systems on board regeneration
Active Systems On Board Regeneration
  • Located anywhere in exhaust, not depend on temperature
  • Requires off-duty time or between shifts
  • Controller subject to shock and vibration
high temperature synthetic filter media
High Temperature “Synthetic” Filter Media
  • 80-99% Efficient
  • Operating Time Will Vary Between Replacement
  • Temperature Limit – 650 F
  • May require a heat exchanger prior to media
  • Filter Location
  • Disposable
diesel particulate reactor tm
Diesel Particulate Reactor TM
  • Substrate is a catalytic emissions reduction system
  • Woven stainless steel alloy fabric cartridge that is brazed to solidify the unit.
  • Designed to bridge gap between DOC and ceramic/synthetic based media
rypos
Rypos
  • • Sintered metal fibers can be designed to achieve any filter efficiency by changing fiber sizes, porosity, and thickness of filter medium.
  • •Active Regeneration DPF where the Filter element is the Heating element
  • Automatic regeneration cycles
  • Pressure and temperature sensing can be used to initiate regeneration cycles
fleetguard longview lean nox catalyst filter
Fleetguard Longview Lean NOX Catalyst Filter
  • Ceramic – Silicon Carbide Catalyzed Filter Media
  • Injects fuel prior to the filter to reduce NOX emissions using a NOX reducing catalyst
  • Passive Regeneration - Requires exhaust gas temperature of 500o F (260o C) at least 25% of the operating time. Must temperature profile machine
dpm exposure estimator
DPM Exposure Estimator
  • Conduct simulation to assist in developing control strategy.
  • Need to measure exposures.
  • Need to assess engines and use.
  • Need to determine air flows.
area sampling locations
Area Sampling Locations

Loader

Blaster

Outside Loader

Section Exhaust

Mine Exhaust

Mine Intake

dpm estimator
DPM Estimator
  • Equipment
  • Engine
  • Horsepower
  • Emissions
  • Hours of Use
disclaimer
Disclaimer

The Department of Labor has developed this presentation to assist the mining industry in complying with the DPM final rule. This is a process that is continually under development. While we try to keep the information timely and accurate, we make no guarantees. We will make an effort to correct errors brought to our attention.