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### CHAPTER 13Capital Structure and Leverage

Business (no Debt) vs. Financial risk

Optimal capital structure

Operating leverage

Capital structure theory

Target Capital Structure

- Preferred, Optimal mix of D, E and P/S to: a) max value of firm and b) raise capital and finance expansion
- Tradeoffs: More debt increases risk, which lowers stock P; but more debt leads to higher expected return on equity, which raises stock P.
- Optimal capital structure: max stock P.

4 Factors for Capital Structure

- 1. Business Risk – risk w/no debt
- 2. Firm’s tax position – does it need more tax shelter from debt or not?
- 3. Financial flexibility – ability to raise capital, on reasonable terms, under adverse conditions
- 4. Managers: conservative or aggressive?

What is business risk?

- Uncertainty about future operating income (EBIT), i.e., how well can we predict operating income?
- Note that business risk does not include financing effects, of debt and interest expense for example.

Low risk

Probability

High risk

0

E(EBIT)

EBIT

What determines business risk?

- TR (SLS) = P x Q
- Uncertainty about demand (sales): Q
- Uncertainty about output prices: P
- Uncertainty about costs (input P)
- Elasticity of Demand – price sensitivity
- Currency Risk Exposure
- Product and other types of legal liability
- Operating leverage (FC vs. VC)

Firms can control business risk:

- Negotiate long-term contracts for labor, supplies, inputs, leases, etc.
- Marketing strategies to stabilize units sales and prices
- Hedging with commodity and financial futures to stabilize revenues and costs

What is operating leverage, and how does it affect a firm’s business risk?

- Operating leverage is the use of fixed costs rather than variable costs.
- If most costs are fixed, hence do not decline when demand falls, then the firm has high operating leverage.
- Examples: Nuclear plant, UM-Flint, Automated Equipment vs. Low-Tech Equipment
- General Rule: Higher the operating leverage, the greater the business risk

Rev.

$

$

}

TC

Profit

TC

FC

FC

QBE

QBE

Sales

Sales

Effect of operating leverage- More operating leverage (right graph, higher FC) leads to more business risk, for then a small sales decline causes a big profit decline (yellow).
- What happens if variable costs change?

Using operating leverage

- Typical situation: Can use operating leverage to get higher E(EBIT), but risk also increases.

Low operating leverage

Probability

High operating leverage

EBITL

EBITH

Illustration of Operating Leverage

- See Example Fig 13-2 in Book, p. 483 and graph p. 485
- Breakeven Formula:
- QBE = FC / (P – VC)
- $20,000 / ($2 – 1.50) = 40,000 units
- $60,000 / ($2 – 1.00) = 60,000 units

What is financial leverage?Financial risk?

- Financial leverage is the use of debt and preferred stock.
- Financial risk is the additional risk concentrated on common stockholders as a result of financial leverage (debt).

Business risk vs. Financial risk

- Business risk depends on business factors such as competition, product liability, and operating leverage.
- Financial risk depends only on the types of securities issued.
- More debt, more financial risk – see p. 487.
- Concentrates business risk on stockholders.

An example:Illustrating effects of financial leverage

- Two firms with the same operating leverage, business risk, and probability distribution of EBIT.
- Only differ with respect to their use of debt (capital structure).

Firm UFirm L

No debt $10,000 of 12% debt

$20,000 in assets $20,000 in assets

40% tax rate 40% tax rate

Firm U: Unleveraged

Economy

Bad Avg. Good

Prob. 0.25 0.50 0.25

EBIT $2,000 $3,000 $4,000

Interest 0 0 0

EBT $2,000 $3,000 $4,000

Taxes (40%) -800 -1,200 -1,600

NI $1,200 $1,800 $2,400

Firm L: Leveraged

Economy

Bad Avg. Good

Prob.* 0.25 0.50 0.25

EBIT* $2,000 $3,000 $4,000

Interest 1,200 1,200 1,200

EBT $ 800 $1,800 $2,800

Taxes (40%) -320 -720 -1,120

NI $ 480 $1,080 $1,680

*Same as for Firm U.

Firm L: Leveraged, Kd > BEP

Economy

Bad Avg. Good

Prob.* 0.25 0.50 0.25

EBIT* $2,000 $3,000 $4,000

Interest 1,600 1,600 1,600

EBT $ 400 $1,400 $2,400

Taxes (40%) 160 560 960

NI $ 240 $840 $1,440

ROE 2.4% 8.4% 14.4%

E(ROE) = 8.4%L < 9%U

Ratio comparison between leveraged and unleveraged firms

FIRM U Bad Avg Good

BEP (EBIT/TA) 10.0% 15.0% 20.0%

ROE 6.0% 9.0% 12.0%

TIE (EBIT/INT) ∞ ∞ ∞

FIRM L Bad Avg Good

BEP 10.0% 15.0% 20.0%

ROE 4.8% 10.8% 16.8%

TIE 1.67x 2.50x 3.30x

Risk and return for leveraged and unleveraged firms

Expected Values:

Firm UFirm L

E(BEP) 15.0% 15.0%

E(ROE) 9.0% 10.8%

E(TIE) ∞ 2.5x

Risk Measures:

Firm UFirm L

σROE 2.12% 4.24%

CVROE 0.24 0.39

The effect of leverage on profitability and debt coverage

- For leverage to raise expected ROE, must have BEP > kd (12%)
- Why? If kd > BEP, then the interest expense will be higher than the operating income produced by debt-financed assets, so leverage will depress income.
- As debt increases, TIE (EBIT/INT) decreases because EBIT is unaffected by debt, and interest expense increases (Int Exp = kdD).

Conclusions

- Basic earning power (BEP) is unaffected by financial leverage.
- L has higher expected ROE because BEP (15%) > kd (12%)
- L has much wider ROE (and EPS) swings because of fixed interest charges. Its higher expected return is accompanied by higher risk.

Optimal Capital Structure

- That capital structure (mix of debt, preferred, and common equity) at which P0 is maximized. Trade offs: Higher E(ROE) and EPS, against higher risk. Optimal: the tax-related benefits of leverage are exactly offset by the debt’s risk-related costs.
- The target capital structure is the mix of debt, preferred stock, and common equity with which the firm intends to raise capital.

Describe the sequence of events in a recapitalization.

- Campus Deli announces recapitalization.
- New debt is issued.
- Proceeds are used to repurchase stock.
- The number of shares repurchased is equal to the amount of debt issued divided by price per share.

Cost of debt at different levels of debt, after proposed recapitalization A = $2000

Amount D/A D/E Bond

borrowed ratio ratio rating kd

$ 0 0 0 -- --

250 0.125 0.1429 AA 8.0%

500 0.250 0.3333 A 9.0%

750 0.375 0.6000 BBB 11.5%

1,000 0.500 1.0000 BB 14.0%

Why do the bond rating and cost of debt depend upon the amount borrowed?

- As the firm borrows more money, the firm increases its financial risk causing the firm’s bond rating to decrease, and its cost of debt to increase – see p. 496.

Analyze the proposed recapitalization at various levels of debt. Determine the EPS and TIE at each level of debt.EBIT = $400,000 Shares = 80,000

Determining EPS and TIE at different levels of debt.(D = $250,000, kd = 8% and P = $25)

Determining EPS and TIE at different levels of debt.(D = $500,000 and kd = 9%)

Determining EPS and TIE at different levels of debt.(D = $750,000 and kd = 11.5%)

Determining EPS and TIE at different levels of debt.(D = $1,000,000 and kd = 14%)

Stock Price, with zero growth

- If all earnings are paid out as dividends, E(g) = 0.
- EPS = DPS
- To find the expected stock price (P0), we must find the appropriate ks at each of the debt levels discussed.

What effect does increasing debt have on the cost of equity for the firm?

- If the level of debt increases, the riskiness of the firm increases.
- We have already observed the increase in the cost of debt.
- However, the riskiness of the firm’s equity also increases, resulting in a higher ks.

The Hamada Equation

- Because the increased use of debt causes both the costs of debt and equity to increase, we need to estimate the new cost of equity.
- The Hamada equation attempts to quantify the increased cost of equity due to financial leverage.
- Uses the unlevered beta of a firm, which represents the business risk of a firm as if it had no debt.

The Hamada Equation

βL = βU[ 1 + (1 - T) (D/E)]

- Suppose, the risk-free rate is 6%, as is the market risk premium. The unlevered beta of the firm is 1.0. We were previously told that total assets were $2,000,000.

Calculating levered betas and costs of equity

If D = $250,

βL = 1.0 [ 1 + (0.6)($250/$1,750) ]

βL = 1.0857

ks = kRF + (kM – kRF) βL

ks = 6.0% + (6.0%) 1.0857

ks = 12.51%

Table for calculating levered betas and costs of equity

ks

12.00%

12.51

13.20

14.16

15.60

Amount borrowed

$ 0

250

500

750

1,000

D/A ratio

0.00%

12.50

25.00

37.50

50.00

D/E ratio

0.00%

14.29

33.33

60.00

100.00

Levered Beta

1.00

1.09

1.20

1.36

1.60

Finding Optimal Capital Structure

- The firm’s optimal capital structure can be determined two ways:
- Minimizes WACC.
- Maximizes stock price.
- Both methods yield the same results.

Table for calculating WACC and determining the minimum WACC

ks

12.00%

12.51

13.20

14.16

15.60

kd (1 – T)

0.00%

4.80

5.40

6.90

8.40

Amount borrowed

$ 0

250

500

750

1,000

D/A ratio

0.00%

12.50

25.00

37.50

50.00

E/A ratio

100.00%

87.50

75.00

62.50

50.00

WACC

12.00%

11.55

11.25

11.44

12.00

* Amount borrowed expressed in terms of thousands of dollars

Table for determining the stock price maximizing capital structure

Amount

Borrowed

DPS

k

P

s

0

$ 0

$3.00

$25.00

12.00%

3.26

26.03

250,000

12.51

3.55

26.89

500,000

13.20

3.77

26.59

14.16

750,000

15.60

3.90

25.00

1,000,000

What debt ratio maximizes EPS?

- Maximum EPS = $3.90 at D = $1,000,000, and D/A = 50%. (Remember DPS = EPS because payout = 100%.)
- Risk is too high at D/A = 50%.

What is Campus Deli’s optimal capital structure?

- P0 is maximized ($26.89) at D/A = $500,000/$2,000,000 = 25%, so optimal D/A = 25%.
- EPS is maximized at 50%, but primary interest is stock price, not E(EPS).
- The example shows that we can push up E(EPS) by using more debt, but the risk resulting from increased leverage more than offsets the benefit of higher E(EPS).

What if there were more/less business risk than originally estimated, how would the analysis be affected?

- If there were higher business risk, then the probability of financial distress would be greater at any debt level, and the optimal capital structure would be one that had less debt. On the other hand, lower business risk would lead to an optimal capital structure with more debt.

Other factors to consider when establishing the firm’s target capital structure

- Industry average debt ratio
- TIE ratios under different scenarios
- Lender/rating agency attitudes
- Reserve borrowing capacity
- Effects of financing on control
- Asset structure
- Expected tax rate

How would these factors affect the target capital structure?

- Sales stability?
- High operating leverage?
- Increase in the corporate tax rate?
- Increase in the personal tax rate?
- Increase in bankruptcy costs?
- Management spending lots of money on lavish perks?

Modigliani-Miller Irrelevance Theory

- The graph shows MM’s tax benefit vs. bankruptcy cost theory.
- Logical, but doesn’t tell whole capital structure story. Main problem--assumes investors have same information as managers.

Incorporating signaling effects

- Signaling theory suggests firms should use less debt than MM suggest.
- This unused debt capacity helps avoid stock sales, which depress stock price because of signaling effects.

What are “signaling” effects in capital structure?

- Assume:
- Managers have better information about a firm’s long-run value than outside investors.
- Managers act in the best interests of current stockholders.

What can managers be expected to do?

- Issue stock if they think stock is overvalued (or prospects poor).
- Issue debt if they think stock is undervalued (or prospects good).
- As a result, investors view a common stock offering as a negative signal--managers think stock is overvalued.

Conclusions on Capital Structure

- Need to make calculations as we did, but should also recognize inputs are “guesstimates.”
- As a result of imprecise numbers, capital structure decisions have a large judgmental content.
- We end up with capital structures varying widely among firms, even similar ones in same industry.

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