Trails West Who went West & Why?. Popular Trails. Santa Fe California Old Spanish Trail Mormon Trail Oregon Trail. Key Terms. Mountain Man Land Speculators South Pass Fort Vancouver Santa Fe Trail William Becknell Conestoga Wagons Oregon Trail Emigrant’s Guide Mormons
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Popular Trails • Santa Fe • California • Old Spanish Trail • Mormon Trail • Oregon Trail
Key Terms • Mountain Man • Land Speculators • South Pass • Fort Vancouver • Santa Fe Trail • William Becknell • Conestoga Wagons • Oregon Trail • Emigrant’s Guide • Mormons • Joseph Smith • Church of Christ of Latter Day Saints • Polygamy • Brigham Young • Salt Lake City, Utah
Mountain Man • Definition: name given to adventurers who trapped furs and traded goods in and around the Rocky Mountains • Hardships and dangers • Alone, or a few companions • Trackers and Pathfinders • Tough • Got along well with Native-Americans • Independent
Mountain Men • Spent most of the year alone, trapping beavers for beaver skin hats, popular at the time. • Rendezvous system – Businessmen from the East would meet trappers and sell them supplies while being paid in furs; 1825-1840. • Explored Far West looking for new streams – their knowledge and the trails they blazed made it possible for later pioneers to move west. Jim Beckwourth
Jedediah Smith • Mountain man who led a party of hunters to western WY in fall of 1823 , failed • Search for South Pass, a low and open area through the Rockies that wagons could get through • 1827 headed for CA, jailed by Mexicans as a spy, released 1828, head along the coast of OR, most killed by N-As, Smith and a few others reach Fort Vancouver on the Columbia in OR country • Since 1790s, GB & US claim, 1818, occupy the area together • 1820s Hudson Bay Co. of CA firm control of the area • Smith sends letter to U.S. government warning that GB is taking over the area, says wagons can cross!!!
Santa Fe, New Mexico, Missouri to Santa Fe • Mexican lands open to American traders • Missouri trader, William Becknell “Father of the Santa Fe Trail” sets out with his goods-large profits, rumors spread, more traders come to the area! • First Western traders use Conestoga wagons on the trail • Many Americans stayed and brought skills= prosperity to the area
The Oregon Trail &The Missionaries • Groups who first came West to convert native people to Christianity and teach white ways. • The best known missionaries were Marcus & Narcissa Whitman & Henry and Eliza Spalding. They made the journey west from St. Louis in 1836. • Very few Indians became Christian, but the missionaries reports of a “Pioneer’s Paradise” helped to convince many Americans to make the journey.
Oregon Trail, Independence, Missouri to the OR territory • Reports of rich farmland • GB & U.S. occupy the territory • 1843 people flood the OR country, leading to conflicts • The Emigrant’s Guide
Mormons • Joseph Smith, founder of the Church of Christ of Latter Day Saints • Large following in Kirtland, OH • Polygamy • 1844 IL mob kills Smith • Brigham Young leads the Mormons West on the Mormon Trail in the Great Migration in 1847, settle in Salt Lake City, Utah
The Mormons • Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints founded in N.Y. by Joseph Smith in 1830. • Wherever they settled, they were persecuted by the neighbors who disagreed with their beliefs or resented their growing wealth and power. • The church has grown into a worldwide religion with over 7 million members.
Lure of the West • Land speculators – Bought huge areas of land hoping they would become valuable and would break them up to sell to settlers for a large profit. • Manufacturers and merchants – hoped to make and sell supplies for farmers moving west. • Others – new beginnings; find jobs; get away from clutter of city; avoid paying people whom they owed money. • Religion- Freely practice religion without being persecuted.