8th Grade Ceramics Jorgensen//Art//Second Unit
Origins of Pottery • Pottery is one of humankind’s first inventions • The durability of fired clay creates one of the best records of the beginnings of our world culture. • Records fade the earlier we study. • 10,000 BC marks the earliest recorded pot making in parts of Asia • 6,000 BC creates a second record in the Middle East • It is likely that earliest pottery was too soft because of low fire temps and disappeared over time.
Continued… • Began with no-glaze pots. • 5,000 BC marks first glaze • China was the most involvedin early glazing, making the history of ceramics very distinctive in Asia. • China also developed the firing techniques used today.
Greek/Roman • Greek and Roman art took ceramics into their own hands with detailed glazes and depictions.
African • Much of the ceramics were undocumented but we know they were used for ceremonial purposes. • Life size pieces have also been found.
England/Europe • Practiced earthenware (slip decorated and matted texture) until the 12th century.
Modern American • There was a purpose to it. • Artistic influences showed. • Companies appeals to the middle class by making aesthetic pieces. • Ceramics turned into a more prominent art form.
Coil: pot made with spiral of clay formed from a structure of coils or ropes of clay laid one on top of the other and smoothed
Left/First: Roll out coils. They must be even and smooth. Use your palms not your fingers. Right/Second: Use the table as a level. Left/Third: Spiral and score/slip coils together onto round base. Coils should be between pencil and marker thick. Above/Fourth: Level top by lightly tapping on table.
Fifth: Some may chose to smooth the outside coils so that the pot has a smooth texture. This is optional depending on the design. Sixth/Optional: Some may chose to add a foot to the bottom of their bowl – you will add another coil, scored, slipped, and smooth it into the bowl. Seventh/Finishing: Last time smoothing will be done with fingers now. At this point, engraving is an option.
Slab: made with hand flattened and even sheets of clay scored together
First: Flatten out your clay onto cloth or newspaper – do this gently. Fourth: Cut slab pieces using a clay knife of pin – cut all pieces using straight edge. Second: Flip the clay piece over and do the same for the other side – use your palms for best stability. Third: Using thickness sticks, roll out clay (like cookie dough) so that it is an even thickness.
Fifth: Score each piece with it will meet another piece – apply slip to help create a connection clear of air. Sixth: Attach pieces after score/slip. Eighth: Smooth edges and cracks for finishing touches. Seventh: Place a coil where the corners are created and then smooth it over – this will create a stronger structure.
Pinch: made by forming a ball of clay with just the hands and pushing one thumb down into the center of the ball and pinching up the wall while rotating
First: Begin with a ball of clay (size varies). Press gently into center with thumb. Second: Continue to push into center, rotating bowl/ball and extending the walls. Third: When walls are finished (1/4” to 1/3” thick, the shape of the bowl can be manipulated.
Planning Your Pottery • Using your example from homework and your imagination – design what your pot will be. • Coil, Pinch, Slab, Hybrid? • Sketch the views of it: top, sides, back, front.