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11. Energy and Water Conservation in Lodging Properties. The Need for Water Conservation The Need for Energy Conservation Water Systems Water Conservation Electricity Systems Electricity Conservation Heating Systems Heating Conservation Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Systems

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11

Energy and Water Conservation in Lodging Properties

  • The Need for Water Conservation
  • The Need for Energy Conservation
  • Water Systems
  • Water Conservation
  • Electricity Systems
  • Electricity Conservation
  • Heating Systems
  • Heating Conservation
  • Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Systems
  • Air-conditioning Conservation
the need for water conservation
The Need for Water Conservation
  • The main reasons for water consumption in the world are:
    • increase in world population
    • efforts of emerging economies to industrialize
  • Water scarcity has reached catastrophic proportions in many areas of the planet.
  • One half of the world’s hospital beds are occupied by patients suffering from water-borne diseases.
the need for water conservation cont
The Need for Water Conservation (Cont.)
  • In the United States’ Southwest, especially in Texas and Arizona, water scarcity is severe.
  • Drilling of deep wells has caused water tables to drop, which creates irreversible conditions in riparian zones and the drying of some creeks and small rivers.
  • High cost and low availability of water is a concern for managers of lodging operations.
the need for electricity conservation
The Need for Electricity Conservation
  • The use of coal for energy generation causes severe pollution problems.
  • Nuclear energy raises public concerns about safety. Examples of unsafe nuclear plants are:
    • Three Mile Island in the US
    • Fukushima in Japan
  • Electricity production from solar and wind sources is still insufficient for existing demand.
the need for electricity conservation cont
The Need for Electricity Conservation (Cont.)
  • The cleanest and safest method of generating energy is the hydroelectric plant.
  • Water power, however, supplies only a small percentage on the country’s energy needs.
  • The US electric grid is considered to be outdated, being prone to cause power outages.
  • High cost and low availability of electricity is a concern for managers of lodging operations.
the need for oil and gas conservation
The Need for Oil and Gas Conservation
  • Oil and gas deposits are being consumed rapidly by Western and emergent countries.
  • A barrel of oil, that used to cost $10, costs today about ten times more.
  • A commitment to conservation and energy management by lodging properties will reduce consumption substantially while lowering operating costs significantly.
water systems
Water Systems
  • In most cases, a reliable supply of potable water to lodging operations is provided by local utility companies, usually managed by the city where the property operates.
  • In establishments located outside city limits (a resort for instance), the property’s management is responsible for the quality of drinking water used.
  • Problems caused by hard water can be eliminated by installing a water softener.
water systems cont
Water Systems (Cont.)
  • In high-rise properties, pumps must be installed to propel water to all stories. A faulty pumping system may cause water surges in guest showers and faucets. This problem is common.
  • Some properties with below-sewer-level basements may have to dispose of waste water after it collects in a well. In this instance, a sump pump is used to bring waste water to sewer level.
  • Sump pumps are difficult and dangerous to clean because of accumulation of toxic fumes in the well.
water conservation
Water Conservation
  • A water conservation program begins with the initiation of employees’ and guests’ awareness on how to conserve water:
    • Signs in public and employee areas reminding everybody that water is a finite resource.
    • Leaks in faucets should be repaired immediately.
    • Ghost flushing in toilets should be minimized.
    • Adjusting flushing mechanisms in toilets or installing newer two-button models will help conserve water.
    • Waterless urinals in public restrooms can save thousands of dollars annually.

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water conservation cont
Water Conservation (Cont.)
  • Infrared sensors in public toilets, urinals, and sinks will reduce water consumption.
  • Plumbing fixtures can be fitted with flow-reducing aerators to reduce the flow of water.
  • Installing tunnel washers in the laundry room of large properties will reduce water usage.
  • A water reclamation system from laundry washers and swimming pools will allow for recycling water for other uses.
  • Covering swimming pools when not in use will prevent water evaporation.
electricity systems
Electricity Systems
  • The electromotive force of electricity is expressed in volts. The force of electricity is very high when it leaves the generating plant.
  • The force of electricity is diminished by using transformers.
  • In the U.S., 110 volts are used for lighting purposes. Higher voltage is required to operate motors and some appliances.
electricity systems cont
Electricity Systems (Cont.)
  • Wattage refers to the number of watts required to operate an electric device; for example, a 60-watt light bulb will consume 60 watts per hour.
  • The billing unit for energy delivered to consumers is expressed in kilowatts.
  • One kilowatt is equivalent to 1,000 watts.
electricity systems cont1
Electricity Systems (Cont.)
  • Amperage is the strength of electric current measured in amperes.
    • For example, a vacuum cleaner motor may take 7 amperes from the electric flow to run, while a more powerful vacuum motor may require 12 amperes.
  • Electric cables inside a building are grouped into circuits.
  • The circuits begin at electric panels with breakers or fuses installed on each main cable.
electricity systems cont2
Electricity Systems (Cont.)
  • The purpose of breakers and fuses is to cut off the electric flow to prevent the cable from igniting if the circuit demand is too high.
    • For example, if a cable diameter is capable of carrying up to 30 amperes of electric demand, a fuse of less amperage is needed to discontinue the flow just in case the devices connected to the cable would draw more than 30 amperes when on.
electricity conservation
Electricity Conservation
  • An electricity conservation program should begin with creating awareness in employees and guests to minimize de use of power.
    • For example, asking everyone to turn off lights and equipment whenever possible.
  • Some recommendations to minimize electricity consumption:
    • Restricting room usage by floor or wing when the property is not at 100% occupancy.
electricity conservation cont
Electricity Conservation (Cont.)
  • Reducing the wattage of light bulbs will save energy, although care must be taken not to dim lights too much.
  • Changing incandescent for fluorescent light bulbs will result in a minimum of 50% electricity saved.
  • In large spaces, electric discharge lamps will reduce energy consumption.
  • Space sensors, timers, and photocells will save energy.
  • Using appliances and other equipment during off-peak hours will lower the electricity bill.
  • The cost of energy can also be lowered by implementing preventive maintenance programs for in-house motors.
heating systems
Heating Systems
  • Heat in lodging properties can be produced by using water, steam, or electricity.
  • A hot water heating system consists of a boiler where the water is heated, a closed circuit of pipes to circulate it, and a series of radiators or fan coils where the heat is irradiated or transferred by blowing air into the spaces to be warmed.
  • The water returns back to the boiler by mean of a circulating pump.
heating systems cont
Heating Systems (Cont.)
  • Steam is generated using the same system as for hot water. In some large cities, steam is supplied directly by utility companies.
  • When using electricity as fuel, electric rods are inserted in the boiler causing the water to heat up.
  • The water in the boiler can also be heated using natural gas. Utility companies charge for natural gas per therm. A therm is equivalent to 100,000 BTUs.
  • In very cold locations, fuel oil is used by some large properties to generate hot water or steam.
heating systems cont1
Heating Systems (Cont.)
  • Electricity is a clean method of generating hot water, but a disadvantage is its high cost.
  • Fuel oil is less expensive than natural gas but it causes more air pollution and requires more maintenance.
  • In decentralized systems, electricity used in single baseboard heaters is a safe and clean method of generating heat, but its cost can be very high.
heating systems cont2
Heating Systems (Cont.)
  • Some properties use individual units rather than a central plant to generate heating. These units are usually heat pumps powered by electricity. The unit is either placed outside or inside the guestroom.
  • Some disadvantages of these systems are the noise of the motor and the high level of maintenance they require.
heating conservation
Heating Conservation
  • Heat can be lost by ventilation, infiltration, or transmission.
  • To minimize heat loss by ventilation, fresh-air intakes and exhaust fans should be calibrated.
  • To avoid excessive infiltration of cold air into buildings, self-rotating doors and windows with efficient glass panes should be installed.
  • A poorly insulated building will lose heat through transmission. A space heat loss can be calculated using the heat transmission transfer formula.
heating conservation cont
Heating Conservation (Cont.)
  • The heat transmission transfer formula is:

T = A × U × (T2- T1)

Where: T = BTUs per hour

A = area of heat transfer

U = heat transmission coefficient

T2 = temperature inside (warmer)

T1 = temperature outside (colder)

refrigeration and air conditioning systems
Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Systems
  • The typical refrigeration cycle is based on a closed circuit that includes an evaporator, a compressor, and a condenser.
  • Large lodging establishments use the absorption refrigeration cycle system.
  • Water-cooling towers are used in large units to cool the warm water flowing from the absorber and condenser units before returning it back to the condenser.
refrigeration and air conditioning systems1
Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Systems

Source: Milton Beychok and Keenan Pepper.

air conditioning conservation
Air-Conditioning Conservation
  • An effective equipment-maintenance program, ventilation calibration, infiltration control, and insulation will minimize the loss of chilled air.
  • Conditioned air can be conserved by reducing solar effects.
  • The isolation of internal sources that generate heat can help conserve chilled air.
  • Kitchen and laundries are strong producers of heat.