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Instructions 1) Press F5 to view the slides as a slideshow. 2) Navigate each slide using the right arrow key. 3) Follow along as Gail and Eric move through Perryland and traverse through Belenky Village. 4) Gail and Eric are a team on their journey. If Gail passes through a position, then Eric will also move forward and vice versa. For additional information, please view the manual.
Cognitive Learning Theories: Perry and Belenky et al. • An interactive learning tool for online students enrolled in graduate-level student affairs programs. • Perryland • Perry: Theory of Intellectual and Ethical Development • Belenky Village • Belenky et al.: Women’s Ways of Knowing
Characters It’s move in day at Jossey Bass University. JBU is a private university located in San Francisco, CA. EricS. is a first year student at Jossey-Bass University. He plans to live on campus. Eric has decided that he will major in Biology and minor in Spanish. GailW. is a first year student at Jossey-Bass University. She plans to major in Animal Husbandry and minor in the History of American Higher Education.
Welcome to Perryland Gail and Eric encounter Dave M. (last name omitted to ensure confidentiality), their resident director. “Welcome to Evans et al. Hall,” Dave said. Gail and Eric say, “We’re new here. Can you tell us where we go eat and where we can shop and where our rooms are and when we should wake up?” Dave says, “You can eat on campus using your meal card at any of the dining halls. Convenient shopping is available at the JB Bookstore. You two each have a room located on the second floor. It would be wise if you woke up in time to eat breakfast, shower, and brush your teeth before class. Gail and Eric reply, “Okay Dave, we trust you because you are our RD and we are new and have no experience with residence life. We will do what you say, oh wise one.”
Perryland Gail and Eric are experiencing dualism. Learners who are dualistic see knowledge as an exchange of facts from authorities (Evans, Forney, & Guido-DiBrito, 1998c). Students see themselves as receptacles of facts, and they believe authorities have all the right answers (Evans et al.). In this scenario, Gail and Eric see DaveM. as the authority with all the answers to their questions.
Perryland Eric is having difficulties with money his first semester at JB. His tuition for this semester has been paid, but he already spent his leftover money on a stereo and TV. His friends asked him to go to a movie, but he had no cash. He decides to go to the financial aid office to ask them how to budget for his first year. He meets with RyanW (last name omitted to ensure confidentiality) and asks him how much money he should spend on entertainment and food, and how to balance his checkbook. RyanW gives Eric a worksheet on balancing his checkbook, but unfortunately cannot provide answers to his questions about how much he should spend on the different aspects of his lifestyle. Eric says, “Thank you for the checkbook info—I’ll have to go back to my room and think more about my budget.” Eric is upset about this situation because he thought Ryan would have the answers to all of his questions. He starts to think that maybe he has to find some of the answers on his own. Eric is experiencing a transition from dualism to multiplicity (the next position). Learners in Perry’s scheme develop only during transitions (Evans et al., 1998c). This is similar to Chickering and Reisser’s (1993) notion that crises may have positive outcomes on one’s growth. A transition from dualism can occur when learners experience an authority figure who cannot give them the answers—this upsets the balance of right and wrong, which necessitates the need for a gray area.
Perryland Gail and Eric finish their first semester at JB. They didn’t do as well as they wanted to, so their parents tell them to enroll in a one credit study skills class team-taught by MelanieJ, SamL, and PadmaA. (last names omitted to ensure confidentiality). They want to learn how to take better notes and to manage their time effectively—they expect that their instructors will tell them how to do these things and give them the answers on how to succeed. Instead, the instructors have them work in small groups with other classmates to brainstorm ideas on how they could be more successful in class. Gail and Eric start to realize that their teachers and their classmates, as well as themselves, have generated equally valid ways to do well in school. Eric and Gail thought this class was their best class so far in college, because they were allowed to come up with answers along with their classmates. They found that the best method to doing well in school was the one that the majority of people in their class said was the most effective.
Perryland Gail and Eric are experiencing multiplicity. Multiplistic learners acknowledge the fact that there are multiple viewpoints about a topic—these viewpoints are all believable due to uncertainty and are usually not supported (Evans et al, 1998c, Wilson, 1996). Like dualism, a correct answer still exists in this position; however, it is the one with the most quantitative support as opposed to the answer given by an authority (Wilson).
Perryland Gail attends a debate about gay marriage in the union auditorium facilitated by CatM. (last name omitted to ensure confidentiality). Gail thinks that some of the opinions stated by the panelists are not backed up by facts and research, so she’s not sure what to believe. Gail is starting to realize that she doesn’t always believe what people say, especially if they lack significant support for their arguments. Gail begins to synthesize and analyze the information she is hearing into her own way of thinking. Gail is transitioning from multiplicity to relativism, which is the next position. During this transition, learners begin to seek support for others’ opinions (Evans et al, 1998c). They realize that not all opinions are true and so they seek a qualitative process as opposed to a quantitative process (Evans et al.).
Perryland Eric and Gail write a weekly point/counterpoint column for JB’s student newspaper, Kiss my Bass. This week’s column is about MP3 and video file sharing. Gail approves of file sharing because she believes that the RIAA is corrupt and without merit. Eric opposes file sharing because he thinks it takes away from blue collar employee earnings. Gail and Eric share an office and they understand that it is okay to disagree. Gail thinks that until more evidence exists for blue collar money loss she will continue to condone file sharing. Eric also needs more proof that the RIAA is corrupt before he agrees with file sharing.
Perryland Gail and Eric are experiencing relativism. A relativistic individual needs evidence and multiple points of view to reach accurate conclusions. (Evans et al., 1998c). As opposed to the multiplistic stage, relativistic individuals no longer feel that all opinions are correct. Qualitative proof is needed to reach a conclusion. (Evans et al.)
Perryland Eric and Gail attend a talk by renowned social activist, MarieDwight, who said the only way to fight hunger is to rise to action, since action is the only way to create social change. They are both committed to this cause due to books they’ve read on the subject and their experience volunteering at a food bank. MarieDwight’s talk was well-supported, and was the catalyst to launch them into fighting hunger through activism. They go to JB’s volunteering center, run by WendyA. (last name omitted to ensure confidentiality), to work on creating an action plan.
Perryland Eric and Gail are experiencing commitment to relativism, which seems to be the least defined position. In this position, the individual doesn’t change cognitively, but decides to incorporate relativistic views into everyday life (Evans et al., 1998c). The individual commits to this position of cognitive thinking, which allows the individual to create identity through action.
Perryland Note: According to Evans et al. (1998c), Perry’s scheme also allows for periods of cognitive deflection, which affects the linear growth that seems to occur in his theory. There are three types of deflection: (a) Temporizing, or postponement of movement; (b) escape, or abandonment of responsibilities that leads to alienation of people; or (c) retreat, or going back to the position of dualism. In what way could Eric and Gail exhibit deflection within the previous scenarios?
Congratulations! You’ve made it through Perryland. Put on your pajamas, it’s Belenky Village time. Perryland
Welcome to Belenky Village Gail is offered a scholarship on the women’s water polo team. She accepts it because it is the only way she can pay for college. She has no option but to be on the team. Her coach is the world renowned, three-time Olympic gold medalist, MaxFisher. Max forces the team to practice three times a day and insists that missing practice is unacceptable, even for school-related reasons. Gail skips a test the following week to make it to practice, even though it means she fails the test.
Belenky Village Gail is encountering silence. According to Evans et al. (1998b), women who experience this perspective are voiceless and powerless. They have no inner voice and are “subject to the whims of external authority” (Evans et al., p. 147). There is not a similar position in the Perry scheme.
Belenky Village Next year, Gail (who is no longer on the water polo team because she received a grant) and Eric attend the Spring Honors Banquet. At the banquet the president of Jossey-Bass University, AmandaW. (last name omitted to ensure confidentiality), delivers the keynote and speaks about her new book Pathways to a Successful Academic Career. Gail and Eric listen attentively. At the end of the evening they purchase copies of the book because they intend to follow all of the “pathways” presented in it. Gail and Eric were awestruck by PresidentW., and both think they could never be a college president.
Belenky Village Gail and Eric are received knowers. The perspective of received knowledge is similar to Perry’s dualism position (Evans et al., 1998b). Truth comes from revered, external authority figures with whom the student does not identify. Students can receive and reproduce knowledge, but cannot produce their own information (Evans et al.)
Belenky Village Gail and Eric attend a talk by the president of Harvard, who they have admired for a long time. In the talk, he criticizes PresidentW’s book, because it was written by a woman and he doesn’t feel she has the appropriate perspective. Eric and Gail are very disappointed in their hero, and they dismiss his statements as ludicrous. They decide to disregard what he says because they trust their own beliefs about academic success, which have been evolving since the banquet last year with PresidentW.
Belenky Village Eric and Gail are subjective knowers. Truth resides within the self in the subjective knowledge perspective (Evans et al., 1998b). This truth is seen as infallible and exceeds the perspectives of others. It often comes about due to an experience with a failed authority figure (Evans et al.).
Belenky Village Gail and Eric are in the study abroad club (SAC) led by TanyaU. (last name omitted to ensure confidentiality). Every year, SAC plans a winter break study abroad trip for its members. This year, the group decides to go to Ecuador, but is having trouble deciding what to study. Eric tells the group that he thinks they should study rainforest preservation, because his friend, AndreaB, studied that in Ecuador last year. Gail, on the other hand, believes they should study local architecture, because she read that the university they are attending is well-known for its architecture school. Gail and Eric listen to what the rest of the group has to say. Eric analyzes what the others have to say about their personal experiences and opinions before voting, while Gail pays more attention to those who have concrete facts about the areas they want to study before voting.
Belenky Village Gail and Eric are both using procedural knowledge, which is noted for its two types of knowing: separate knowing and connected knowing (Evans et al., 1998b). Separate knowers (Gail) practice critical thinking and listen to reason, while trying to be objective (Evans et al.). Connected knowers (Eric) are also objective in their knowledge making, but they tend to utilize personal experience and feelings, rather than an authoritative voice (Evans et al.). It is possible that a person can fluctuate between the two types of knowing (Evans et al.).
Belenky Village Gail and Eric are asked by RemN. (last name omitted to ensure confidentiality) to participate in a debate against each other about FERPA and how it has affected millennial parents. The debate occurs during JBU’s new student orientation in front of new student parents. Gail is arguing for continuing FERPA due to student privacy rights, while Eric thinks FERPA should be discontinued, because millennial parents are so involved with their students’ lives. They base their arguments on their past four years at JBU, as well as independent research and experiences with their own parents.
Belenky Village Gail and Eric are constructed knowers. Constructivism is being open to feelings and thoughts while maintaining one’s inner voice (Evans et al., 1998b). It is also defined by combining separate knowing with connected knowing, which allows knowledge to be constructed from within as well as from outside of the self (Evans et al.).
Congratulations! You are both constructed relativistic knowers! Good luck on your move to Oregon for the CSSA program. Graduation
Next 1) Reflect on this PowerPoint and the previous readings then post a think card on Blackboard with your thoughts and questions for further discussion. 2) Respond to at least two other students’ responses. References Chickering, A. W., & Reisser, L. (1993). Education and identity. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Evans, N. J., Forney, D. S., Guido-DiBrito, F. (1998a). Kolb’s theory of experiential learning. In Student development in college: Theory, research, and practice (pp. 203-224). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Evans, N. J. et al. (1998b). Later cognitive structural theories. In Student development in college: Theory, research, and practice (pp. 146-153). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Evans, N. J. et al. (1998c). Perry’s theory of intellectual and ethical development. In Student development in college: Theory, research, and practice (pp. 123-145). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Wilson, B. A. (1996). A descriptive study: The intellectual development of business administration students. The Delta Pi Epsilon Journal, 38, 209-221.