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UN Expert Group Meeting on Measuring International Migration: Concepts and Methods 4-7 December 2006, New York. International Migrations Statistics in ESCWA Region. Neda Jafar United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) jafarn@un.org. Contents.

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UN Expert Group Meeting on

Measuring International Migration: Concepts and Methods

4-7 December 2006, New York

International Migrations Statistics in ESCWA Region

Neda Jafar

United Nations

Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia

(ESCWA)

jafarn@un.org


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Contents

  • ESCWA ACTIVITIES IN INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION: 1990-2006

  • REGIONAL TRENDS

  • INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION STATISTICS STATUS: SOURCES, METHODOLOGY AND CHALLENGES

  • ESCWA PROPOSED FUTURE ACTIVITIES FOR 2007-2009


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ESCWA ACTIVITIES IN INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION (1990-2006)

The issue of International Migration gained importance as a result of the repatriation of migrant workers from oil-producing countries in Western Asia during the Gulf war, followed by new inflows once the war had ended.

  • Early nineties: few unplanned and limited activities in response to emerging issues dealt with social and economic challenges posed by return migration

  • In 1999: Expert Group Meeting on International Migration in the Middle East: Patterns and Implications for Sending and Receiving Countries

  • In 2001: Study on Migration and Population Policies in the Arab Region

  • In 2002: Study on Responding to globalization: trends, challenges and labor market policies and population dynamics

  • In 2005: ESCWA Expert Group Meeting on International Migration Statistics

  • In 2006: Expert Group Meeting on International Migration and Development in the Arab region.


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Regional Trends

  • In 1973, sharp increase in oil prices

  • The oil-producing countries accelerated recruitment of foreign workers needed to build infrastructure.

  • Migrants in the six member States of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)- Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates

    • 1 million in 1970

    • 4 million in 1980

    • 9.6 million in 2000, of which 5.3 resided in Saudi Arabia.


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  • In 2000

    • Arab countries in the list of major receiving countries in the world

      • Saudi Arabia (3.0%)

      • Jordan and United Arab Emirates (each 1.1%)

  • Migrant labor constitutes an avg. 35% of labor force in oil producing countries & in some as much as 80%

  • In 2002 the Arab countries received US$14 billion, ie 2.2% of GDP.. Highest receiver of remittances in the world.

  • International migrants constituted:



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INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION STATISTICS STATUS: SOURCES, METHODOLOGY AND CHALLENGES

  • The dearth of data as a result of:

    • wide spectrum and incongruent sources

    • lack of comprehensive framework and methodology

    • weakness of capacity and limited resources

    • inadequacy of administrative records

    • lack of surveys


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Types of immigrants METHODOLOGY AND CHALLENGES

  • Students

  • Workers .. “overseas workers”

  • Family reunification/formation

  • Refugees/Asylum seekers


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Administrative Records METHODOLOGY AND CHALLENGES

  • Purpose is administrative

  • Missing detailed data on migrants

  • Scarcity of statistical reports

  • Non-existence of population registers

  • Inadequacy of exit/entry forms for boarders

  • Insufficiency data/inadequacy of quality data from work permits


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Population Censuses METHODOLOGY AND CHALLENGES

  • 2010 Round Principles and Recommendations of Population and Housing Census

  • “citizenship” - all mc

  • “place of birth” - 6 mc

  • “Place of previous residence” - 7 mc, however, there is no time reference

  • “reasons for migration” – 5 mc on education, work, and family reunification

  • “refugees” & ”asylum seekers”- 1 mc

  • “duration of residence” – long term migrants >12 months

    ** Lebanon = 0


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inside country (name of governorate) or outside (name of country)

yes, or previous nationality for those don’t have papers

United Arab Emirates (2005)

Yemen (2004)

yes

yes

yes


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Example of country x country)

  • International visitor: <6 months

  • International migrant: >6 months

  • Long-term migrant: who has permanent residence

  • Short term migrant: <6 months

  • Permanent residence: who has changed his permanent residence, got another nationality or permanent residence, or resided no less than 10 years

  • Usual place of residence: usual place of residence on a continuous basis

  • Foreigner: person residing for any reason and non national

  • Category of migrants:

    • visitors (from country to abroad for less than 12 months)

    • migrants for settlements

    • refugees


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Challenges country)

  • Adoption of international standards

    • definitions and concepts

    • categorization of types of migrants

  • Dissemination of data on international migrants and in particular on flow of migrants

  • Coordination and collaboration with different producers

  • Exchange of data

  • Mandate /legislation


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ESCWA PROPOSED FUTURE ACTIVITIES 2007-2009 country)

  • Workshop on International Migration Statistics and Data Exchange among the GCC

  • UNSD Questionnaire on International Migration Statistics

  • Social Compendium on international migration statistics in the ESCWA region

  • Project proposal for the Development of International Migration Statistics in the Region


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Thank you.. country)