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Geologic Structures. Structural Geology – study of deformation of rocks and the forces that cause deformation. Structural Geology is concerned with deformation of the Earth's crust. Where is deformation occurring today? Plate boundaries Active orogenic belts (Impact structures)

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Geologic Structures

Structural Geology – study of deformation of rocks and the forces that cause deformation

structural geology is concerned with deformation of the earth s crust
Structural Geology is concerned with deformation of the Earth's crust

Where is deformation occurring today?

  • Plate boundaries
  • Active orogenic belts
  • (Impact structures)

Where has deformation occurred in the past?

  • Identify ancient orogens
  • Relative ages of rocks vs. deformation

Why do we want to understand deformation?

  • Natural hazards
  • Economic resources
  • Basic science
slide4

Geologic Structures

Stress – Compression, Tension, Shear

slide5

Stress – Strain relations

Strain – Elastic, Plastic, Brittle

Elastic range

slide6

Geologic Maps

Geologic Maps – strike & dip (angle, direction), geologic cross-sections

http://www.visualentities.com/applets/blockdiagram.htm

slide7

Geologic Maps

Folds – antiforms, synforms, limbs, hinge line (axis), axial plane, domes, basins,

slide8

Folds

Domes

slide10

Folds

Plunging folds, domes, basins

slide11

Types of folds

Open, isoclinal, overturned, recumbent

slide12

Joints, cracks, fractures

Tensional, compressional, sets

slide15

Faults

Fault plane, hanging wall, footwall

Faults – dip-slip, strike-slip, oblique-slip

slide16

Fault planes

Dip-slip – normal, reverse

slide18

Dip-slip – normal fault zone, Iran

Pliocene-Pleistocene, Zanjan-Tabriz highway

slide25

Geologic Structures

Oil Reservoirs