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Nutrition. requirements change throughout life growth pregnancy lactation work essential nutrients protein **carbohydrates **fat **minerals **vitamins **H 2 O. Protein. AA - compounds of muscle, enzymes and hormone 8-10\% protein for mature horse

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nutrition
Nutrition
  • requirements change throughout life
    • growth
    • pregnancy
    • lactation
    • work
  • essential nutrients
    • protein
    • **carbohydrates
    • **fat
    • **minerals
    • **vitamins
    • **H2O
protein
Protein
  • AA - compounds of muscle, enzymes and hormone
  • 8-10% protein for mature horse
    • ample protein with high quality hay and grain
    • poor hay - add SBM, or oilseed products
  • quality hay
    • limiting AA - lysine and methionine
    • excess methionine depletes copper and zinc (hoof wall)
  • exercise - little if any increase needed
    • usually met with increase of ration
  • excessive protein - increased fluid loss in sweat and urine
    • need more H2O
carbohydrate
Carbohydrate
  • primary source in equine diet
  • consist of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
    • sugars, starches, celluloses
  • absorbed from intestine as glucose
  • glucose stimulates insulin release, which lowers blood glucose
  • peak levels of glucose and insulin about 2 hours after feeding - normal in 5 hours
  • excess CHO stored as glycogen in muscle or liver
  • exercise - increase grain to hay ratio to increase energy available
slide4
Fat
  • concentrated source of energy - twice the calories as CHO
  • composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen as fatty acids
  • feed fat to provide 5-15% of energy in diet
    • add fat supplement - raise energy content of ration without increasing volume
    • in pelleted feeds - rancidity
  • digest and utilize fats readily - 90%
  • absorbed from intestine into bloodstream
  • stored as triglycerides in muscle or adipose tissue - principal source for aerobic metabolism
minerals
Minerals
  • inorganic substances
  • formation of structural components and energy transfer
  • exercise
    • maintain osmotic pressure and fluid balance
    • activity of nervous and muscular systems
  • macrominerals
    • calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, chloride, magnesium, sulfur
  • microminerals
    • cobalt, copper, fluorine, iodine, iron, manganese, selenium, zinc
slide6
exercise - sodium, potassium, chloride
    • calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and zinc
  • excess excreted in urine
  • over-supplementation
    • one mineral prevents absorption of another
    • zinc inhibits calcium and copper absorption
    • calcium inhibits zinc absorption
    • manganese interferes with iron absorption
slide7
calcium
    • 35% of bone structure
    • essential for muscle contraction
    • formation of hoof wall
    • 20 g/day
    • exercise - increase calcium met with increase in feed
    • hay
      • legumes are high in calcium
      • grass and grain diet - add calcium carbonate (limestone)
slide8
phosphorus
    • 15% of skeleton
    • require for energy transfer reaction - ATP and ADP
    • 15 g/day
    • calcium:phosphorus ratio 1:1
  • potassium
    • major intracellular cation
    • maintain osmotic pressure and acid-base balance
    • 25 g/day to 45 g/day (hard work)
    • hays - high in potassium
    • grains - low potassium (.3-.4%)
slide9
sodium
    • major extracellular cation
    • maintain acid base balance and osmotic regulation
    • 7.5 g/day for idle horse
    • feeds lower than .1 % sodium
    • add sodium chloride (salt)
    • large increase required with exercise
    • can tolerate high levels of salt
    • free access to water
  • chloride
    • extracellular anion
    • acid base balance and osmotic regulation
    • no requirement established yet
    • requirement met with salt
slide10
magnesium
    • .05% of body mass
      • 60% for skeleton
    • activator of enzymes
    • 7.5 g/day
    • requirement increases for hard working horses
  • iron
    • constituent of hemoglobin
    • limited info on requirements
    • adequate amount from feed
    • anemia - iron deficiency
slide11
selenium
    • component of enzyme glutathione peroxidase
      • cell membrane damage
    • .1 mg/kg of the diet
    • deficient geographic areas
    • horses absorb selenium efficiently (77%) / ruminants (29%)
    • deficiency may limit horse’s performance
    • can be toxic - 2 mg/kg of the diet
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