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Who am I?. Hard Bop’s most prolific composer was_____. Fats Navarro Clifford Brown’s prime influence was trumpeter___________. Fats Navarro The most popular tenor saxophonists of the 1950s were Stan Getz and________. Sonny Rollins

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Who am i
Who am I?

  • Hard Bop’s most prolific composer was_____.

  • Fats Navarro

  • Clifford Brown’s prime influence was trumpeter___________.

  • Fats Navarro

  • The most popular tenor saxophonists of the 1950s were Stan Getz and________.

  • Sonny Rollins

  • What instrument does the leader of the Maynard Ferguson band play?

  • Trumpet

What am i
What am I?

  • Who is the bandleader best known for playing extremely high notes?

  • Maynard Ferguson

  • What band had hits with 1970s movie themes?

  • Maynard Ferguson

  • Who co-led a famous quintet with Clifford Brown?

  • Max Roach


  • Charlie Parker’s death in 1955

  • Most young performers were classified as beboppers regardless of their individuality

  • Cool, or West Coast style was emerging

  • MJQ became the model group in the Cool style

  • Traditional blues elements were re-entering jazz

  • Blues flavored bebop style became popular


  • Hard Bop - Funky - Soul

    • Cool Jazz became too “intellectual”

    • A jazz style developed in the 1960s in which jazz is combined with features of r & b

    • Further developments combined jazz with the soul music of the 1960s resulting in a blusier harmonic style with simpler, funkier melodies and improvisation

    • “Hard Bop” continued the tradition of Bebop with improvisation and the structures of the past, including 12-bar and 32-bar forms

Who am i

  • Hard Bop

    • 1950s, Speed, intense, powerful, sometimes incorporated gospel and blues.

  • Funky

    • Combines elements of gospel and R&B with jazz. Also called soul jazz.

  • Soul

    • Combines elements of gospel and R&B with jazz. Also called funky.

Horace silver and art blakey
Horace Silver and Art Blakey

  • Horace Silver and Art Blakey defined the terms hard bop, funky and soul jazz

  • Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers

Horace silver b 1928 norwalk ct
Horace Silver b. 1928, Norwalk, CT

  • Portuguese descent

  • Cape Verdian folk music pervades his mature work

  • Soloist and composer for the original Jazz Messengers which he formed with Art Blakey in 1955

  • Defined the new style called “hard bop”

  • Left the Messengers in 1956

  • Under contract with Blue Note from 1952-1980

  • Formed his own label “Silveto Records”

Horace silver
Horace Silver

  • The greatest influence on other pianists after Bud Powell and before Bill Evans

  • Limited technique

  • Deep feeling for traditional blues

  • Listen to:

    • “Sweet Stuff”SCJP III, #11

      • “Funky” style - made up of bebop piano, black gospel music and basic blues

      • reintroduces the minor third (a “Blues” note) as a melodic note after it was neglected for years

Moon rays 1958 sccj 4 11

The band:

Piano - Horace Silver

Trumpet - Art Farmer

Tenor Sax - Clifford Jordan

Bass - Teddy Kotick

Drums - Louis Hayes

Tight organization at opening

0.00 intro, soli horns and pedal point in bass

0.31 repeat. Cool sound continues

0.59 bridge. Same texture but with new chords

1.30 return to opening theme AABA structure

1.58 tenor solo, drums ride, piano comps

2.29 bridge more aggressive hard bop texture

2.56 solo continues with relaxed bebop melodic line

3.54 relaxed trumpet solo rhythm walking and comping

4.22 bridge

4.51 2nd solo chorus

5.21 bridge

5.50 piano solo, sparse accompaniment

6.45 2nd solo chorus. Single note accomp

7.18 blues motives

7.43 horns enter with new tutti theme

8.13 repeat

8.39 another new unison melody

8.55 shoutlike riff

9.38 return to main theme; bass plays pedal point

10.10 repeat

10.40 ending

10.51 end

“Moon Rays” - 1958SCCJ 4 - 11

Art blakey 1919 1990
Art Blakey 1919-1990

  • One of a small number of musicians who have helped young talented musicians

  • Did this for 35 years after 1955

  • At age 11 he taught himself to play piano and organized a band

  • Switched to drums and played with

    • Mary Lou Williams

    • Fletcher Henderson

    • Billy Eckstine

    • Charlie Parker

    • Dizzy Gillespie

    • Thelonious Monk

    • Miles Davis

Art blakey
Art Blakey

  • Formed the Jazz Messengers in 1955 with

    • Pianist Horace Silver

    • Tenor Sax Hank Mobley

    • Trumpet Kenny Dorham

    • Bass Doug Watkins

  • When Silver left in 1956 many new players came and were influenced by Blakey including:

    • Woody Shaw, Chuck Mangione, Art Farmer, Wynton Marsalis, Branford Marsalis, Keith Jarrett

E t a 1981 intro to jazz hist 1 10

Drums - Art Blakey

Trumpet - Wynton Marsalis

Tenor Sax - Bill Pierce

Alto Sax - Bobby Watson

Piano - James Williams

Bass - Charles Fambrough

0.00 begins with a drum solo

0.26 horns enter in a very tight soli line

0.37 softer contrasting phrase, drums continue

0.48 alto sax solo, double time melody, bass walks, piano comps

1.10 2nd solo chorus

1.32 3rd solo chorus horns in background

1.54 trumpet solo

2.15 2 solo chorus

2.37 3rd solo chorus with soft horn accompt.

2.59 tenor sax solo in double time

3.20 2nd solo chorus

3.41 piano solo

4.25 fast unison line played by 3 winds

4.47 drum solo

5.32 main theme

5.56 ending - long note with drum solo

6.09 end

“E. T. A.” - 1981Intro to Jazz Hist., 1 - 10

Clifford brown 1930 1956
Clifford Brown1930 - 1956

  • Bop and hard (postbop) player

  • From Wilmington, Del. and worked in Philadelphia and New York

  • Worked with

    • Lionel Hampton

    • Max Roach

  • Technique based on running 8th notes

  • Died in an auto accident before his style fully matured

  • Did his best work with the quintet he led with Max Roach

Clifford brown 1930 19561
Clifford Brown 1930-1956

  • Style

    • angular melodic lines

    • irregular phrase lengths

    • full trumpet range

    • emotionally involved player

    • rich, full tone

    • little reliance on previously worked out licks

    • Listen to:

      • Sonny Rollins Plus Four - “Pent-up House” SCCJ Disc 4 - cue 15

Sonny rollins
Sonny Rollins

  • Began his career in small groups around NYC

  • Established his reputation in the Roach-Brown quintet

  • Became the leading sax player through recordings made after 1957

  • Able to experiment with various jazz styles with periods of “woodshedding”

  • Prefers to improvise on strong melodies unlike Parker, who rarely refers to the tune in fast improvs

Sonny rollins1
Sonny Rollins

  • Rollin’s style:

    • wide variety of melody

    • melodic connections based on voice leading

    • varied melodic rhythms

    • irregular phrase lengths

    • rich tone

    • use of space

    • entire range of instrument

    • emotional expression

    • “inside” playing

  • One of the richest styles in modern jazz

  • Listen to “Blue Seven”

    • SCCJ disc V, #1

After charlie parker
After Charlie Parker

  • The bebop tradition continues with:

    • Alto Sax: Phil Woods and Charles McPherson

    • Guitarist John Tyner

    • Trumpet player Wallace Roney

    • Pianists Oscar Peterson and McCoy Tyner

Bebop in the mainstream
Bebop in the Mainstream

  • Jazz proceeds through the 1980s with continuous modifications

  • Technical advancement had the greatest impact

  • Bebop was most affected by virtuosity

Mainstream bebop
Mainstream Bebop

  • The rhythm section

    • Bass is free from walking and now augments the drums, creating a new sense of tempo

    • Patterns are not played for long times

    • Drumming style is very aggressive

    • Drumming style sounds soloistic even when it isn’t

    • The piano’s role is similar to the late 1940s

      • It plays difficult melodies

      • Provides interesting comps

Mainstream bebop1
Mainstream Bebop

  • The ensemble

    • The various sections of the band collaborate with kicks and punches a la fusion

    • A high level of communication between the players

  • Arrangements and compositions

    • Standard songs often provide the harmonic structure

    • The music is shaped by the new role of the rhythm section

    • Pieces are often played at top speed

    • Compositions are designed to display the soloists and the ensemble

The marsalis family
The Marsalis Family

  • Talent runs in families

  • Ellis Marsalis (pianist and Father)

    • Taught at the New Orleans Center for Creative Arts

  • Dolores Marsalis (singer and Mother)

    • Singer with jazz groups

Wynton marsalis 1961
Wynton Marsalis1961 -

  • Wynton Marsalis (trumpet and son)

  • early accomplishments

    • New Orleans Philharmonic at age 14

    • Tanglewood at age 17

    • Juilliard at age at age 18 playing and recording with Art Blakey’s Jazz Messengers at age 19

    • toured with Herbie Hancock

    • 1982 Kool Jazz Festival

    • 1984 - Grammys for classical and jazz recordings

  • championed neoclassicism in jazz

Who am i

Wynton Marsalis1961 -

  • recordings with him as leader include

    • “Wynton Marsalis” 1981

    • “Think of One”

  • recital in 1982 of classical music won him international honors and prizes

  • a spokesman for his style of playing and for modern bebop

  • attracted a new and young audience to jazz

Sing on
“Sing On”

  • Wynton Marsalis, trumpet

  • Michael White, clarinet

  • Wess “Warmdaddy” Anderson, alto sax

  • Victor Goines, tenor sax

  • Ron Westray, Delfeayo Marsalis, Reginald Veal, trombones

  • Don Vappie, banjo

  • Wycliffe Gordon, tuba

  • Herlin Riley, drums

  • Producer - Delfeayo Marsalis

Mainstream bop
Mainstream Bop

  • Branford Marsalis

    • Saxophone

    • Recorded and toured as a member of Sting’s band

    • Became prominent as leader of the Tonight Show band

  • Delfeayo Marsalis

    • Trombonist and record producer

  • Jason Marsalis

    • Jazz drummer

  • Acoustic musicians

  • Their mission: to play jazz better than it has ever been played before

Mainstream bop1
Mainstream Bop

  • Roy Hargrove 1970-

    • Discovered by Wynton Marsalis

    • Attended Berklee on scholarship

    • Suggested listening: The Vibe BMG/Novus 63132

Mainstream bop2
Mainstream Bop

  • Joshua Redman 1968-

    • Harvard on full scholarship, summa cum laude

    • Yale Law School

    • Won Thelonious Monk Institute Jazz Sax Comp. In 1991

    • Signed to Warner Bros.

    • Suggested listening: Wish Warner Bros. 9 45365-2

Unique styles
Unique Styles

  • Stanley Jordan 1959-

    • New style to jazz

      • Tunes strings to intervals of the fourth

      • Plays notes by tapping the strings at the frets with fingers of both hands

      • The approach is pianistic

  • First noticed at the 1984 New York Kool Jazz Festival

  • Thought to have been self taught

    • Studied classical piano age 6

    • Father sold piano

    • Became absorbed in rock and roll and blues

Stanley jordan
Stanley Jordan

  • Learned from Jimi Hendrix

    • Licks (short melodic ideas)

    • Harmonics (very high notes produced when the string is lightly touched)

  • Studied Wes Montgomery and Art Tatum

  • Graduated from Princeton in 1981 where he had studied composition and theory

  • Listen to:

    • Eleanor Rigby (lennon-McCartney)*

    • 1984

    • Stanley Jordan, guitarSammy Figueroa, percussion

    • The Best of Stanley JordanBlue Note CDP 7243 8 315022 2 9

Unique styles1
Unique Styles

  • Bobby McFerrin

    • A one man show - a complete ensemble

      • Slaps his chest for rhythm

      • Sings melody in high range

      • Interjects bass effortlessly

    • Invented new sounds

  • Listen to “Another Night in Tunisia” 1986

    • The band

      • Music by Frank Paparelli and Dizzy Gillespie

      • Arrangers: Cheryl Bentyne and Bobby McFerrin

      • Vocals: The Manhattan Transfer

      • Soloist and lyricist: Jon Hendricks

Supplemental listening
Supplemental Listening

  • “I Got Rhythm” 1945 SCCJ 3-9

    • Tenor sax - Don Byas

    • Bass - Slam Stewart

    • The tempo is over 300 beats per minute

    • AABA form

  • “I Should Care” 1957 SCCJ 4-10

    • Thelonious Monk, piano

    • Form ABAC

    • This improv is basically an harmonic treatment

  • “Pent-Up House” 1959 SCCJ 4-15

    • Sonny Rollins, tenor, Clifford Brown, trumpet, Richie Powell, piano, George Morrow, bass, Max Roach, drums

    • Typical of later style bebop when solos were of primary concern

Charles mingus 1922 1979
Charles Mingus 1922-1979

  • From Arizona, raised in the Watts section of LA

  • Bass player and sideman with swing and bop bands

  • Evolved his own modern style in the 1950s

  • Unique position comes from the individuality of his music

  • Borrowed from free jazz, remained tonal, rooted in bop and older styles, blues, and Afro-American music

  • Often avoided the use of the piano - allowed the bass to shine through

Charles mingus
Charles Mingus

  • Expressed strong feelings in his music

  • Expected high standards from his sidemen

  • Expected high standards from his audiences

  • b. 4/22/22, Nogales, AZ

  • Watts (L.A.) was the seat of big city segregation

  • Age 5-6 received a trombone from his father

  • Age 10 father trades trombone for a cello

  • After high school, father trades cello for a bass

Charles mingus1
Charles Mingus

  • Ellington turned Mingus to jazz

  • 1947 redorded his first successful composition “Mingus Fingers”

  • Late 1940s worked with Dizzy, Bud Powell, Max Roach, Charlie Parker, Lionel Hampton

  • Always rehearsing

  • 1960 his stature had grown - Newport

  • public rage

  • Semiretirement 1966-1970

Charles mingus2
Charles Mingus

  • Depression

  • Belleview

  • 1971 - autobirography “Beneath the Underdog”

  • Returned to public performance in 1970 and produced “Three or Four Shades of Blue”

  • European tour in 1972

  • Final project with Joni Mitchell

  • Died January 5, 1979 in Cuernavaca, Mexico

Charles mingus3
Charles Mingus

  • His output covers many styles from Armstrong to free jazz

  • Attempted to channel the energies of his players into a single statement

  • Gunther Schuller coined the term “Third Stream” but Mingus (and Teo Macero) successfully incorporated the avant-garde classical ideas into jazz combos

Charles mingus4
Charles Mingus

  • Listen to:

    • “Hora Decubitus” SCCJ

    • “Original Faubus Fables” NW 216

    • “Three or Four Shades of Blue”

Hard bop quiz
Hard Bop Quiz

  • 1. Hard bop’s most prolific composer was_____.

    • A. Fats Navarro

    • B. Sonny Rollins

    • C. Maynard Ferguson

    • D. Max Roach

Hard bop quiz1
Hard Bop Quiz

  • 2. The most popular tenor saxophonists of the 1950s were Stran Getz and________.

    • A. Fats Navarro

    • B. Sonny Rollins

    • C. Maynard Ferguson

    • D. Max Roach

Hard bop quiz2
Hard Bop Quiz

  • 3. Who is the bandleader best known for playing extremely high notes?

    • A. Fats Navarro

    • B. Sonny Rollins

    • C. Maynard Ferguson

    • D. Max Roach

Hard bop quiz3
Hard Bop Quiz

  • 4. Who successfully coined the term “Third Stream” ?

    • A. Gunther Schuller

    • B. Charles Mingus

    • C. Sonny Rollins

    • D. Bobby McFerrin

Hard bop quiz4
Hard Bop Quiz

  • 5. Name this tune:

    • A. “Hora Decubitus”

    • B. “Pent-Up House”

    • C. “Another Night in Tunisia”

    • D. “Eleanor Rigby”

Hard bop quiz5

6. Which of the following correctly associates the instrument with the performer?

Hard Bop Quiz

Thumbs up

Thumbs Up! instrument with the performer?