part ii of the religion political organization unit n.
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Part II of the Religion/Political Organization Unit. Political Organization. 4 levels of Political Integration. Band Tribe Chiefdom State. The Band. Small in size 20-100 people usually nomadic, food collectors Some examples: Guayaki (Amazon Basin) !Kung San (Kalahari Desert)

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4 levels of political integration
4 levels of Political Integration
  • Band
  • Tribe
  • Chiefdom
  • State
the band
The Band
  • Small in size
    • 20-100 people
  • usually nomadic, food collectors
  • Some examples:
    • Guayaki (Amazon Basin)
    • !Kung San (Kalahari Desert)
    • The beloved Mbuti
    • And of course, roving bands of hippies
band leadership
Band Leadership
  • Bands typically led, if at all, by Headman
    • Not a formal position
    • Most often, headmen exhibit traits necessary to a group
      • Best hunter from a group that relies on hunting, or most proficient shaman, etc.
  • No permanent authority, no individuals with formal power
quick aside
Quick Aside
  • Imagine Mayo High School as “the world”
  • Who would make up the various “bands?”
  • Who might be headmen/headwomen? Why?
  • Talk to your neighbor for a minute, then let’s talk together for a minute
the tribe
The Tribe
  • Think of as several bands united by some common characteristic
  • Multi-local integration
    • Temporary
    • Generally informal
  • Tend to be food producers
    • Higher pop. density
    • More sedentary living
kinship system
Kinship System
  • Segmentary Lineage System – Tiv of Nigeria
  • Creates system of “Complimentary Opposition”
  • Creates a powerful defense (or attack) against un-united neighbors
    • Nuer v. much larger but less-closely-allied Dinka in early 1800’s
age set systems
Age-Set Systems
  • Karamajong of Uganda
    • Elders are primary decision-makers – remain in a locality
    • Pastoral life - following herds – takes adults and elders to various localities
    • Age set makes sure they fit in a social hierarchy, regardless of the geographic locality
the chiefdom
The Chiefdom
  • Emergence of formal leadership – “the CHIEF”
    • Usually permanent
    • Sometimes hereditary
    • High status
    • In many cases connected to divine power
    • Often involved in redistribution of goods
the state
The State
  • Autonomous unit encompassing many communities
  • Centralized Government
    • Becomes an occupation, not just a social station
    • Use force to maintain control
the state cont d
The State cont’d
  • A Society may contain more than one state
    • Example(s)?
      • “Western” Society,
  • A State may contain more than one society
    • Example(s)?
      • Canada
  • Tendency for specialization and stratification