untitled* Melih ÖZSÖZ Senior Researcher, IKV ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION
Content • What is communication? • How a country’s image is formed? • Success stories (country image) • The view of Turkey in Europe • The view of Europe in Turkey • IKV in Europe
What is communication? • Communication is the method by which people share their ideas, information, opinions and feelings. • People sharing ideas, information, opinions and feelings may contribute to the operations of teams and the work of individuals. • Communication is a two-way activity between two or more people. There are various modes of communication, some of which are used more commonly in some workplaces than others.
CHANNEL SOURCE S/he codes the information and transmits to the receiver RECEIVER S/he reads the message and transmits to the source IMAGE
INFORMATION Message to be submitted Source Message IMAGE
Clint Eastwood (Blondy) Eli Wallack (Tuco) Lee van Cleff (Angel Eyes) Film by Sergio Leone (1961) “The Good, The Bad and The Ugly”
COUNTRY IMAGE VARIABLES OF COUNTRY IMAGE PERSONAL EXPERIENCES MEDIA SOCIO-CULTURAL History Religion Language Culture Voyage Memories P2P Interraction Myths Books Newspapers TV GEOGRAPHY Location Nature ECONOMY Country’s Economic Situation Quality of Workforce Companies and Brands POLITICS OTHER VARIABLES Inhabitants of the country Demography
RESULTS Tendency towards visiting the country Tendency towards making business with the country Tendency towards consuming country’s products Tendency towards living in the country Tendency towards getting education in the country Tendency towards working in the country
EU’S SPENDING ON PROPAGANDA In 2008, EU spent 2.4 billion Euros to promote itself and its central aim of “ever closer union” Population of Europe (2008): 500 m. 2.400,000,000 Euros / 500,000,000. People= 4,8 EUROS “In 2008, 4,8 Euros from your pockets go to EU’s propaganda” Coca Cola spent 2 billion Euros in 2008 for its global advertisement
SUCCESS STORIES – 1 SPAIN TOURISM • GOAL: • By using the cultural heritage in Barcelona, emphasizing country’s EU membership. • METHOD: • World-wide known Spanish names are being used within the world business community (Picasso, J. Iglesias etc.) • Spanish artist Miro was extensively used abroad. • “Spanish” trade mark was created. • Promotion of Barcelona around the globe. • Revision in Spain’s EU image • “Instead of a total money consumer; a country full of fun, tourism, culture and art”.
SUCCESS STORIES – 2 POLAND IMAGE MANAGEMENT FOR STEREOTYPES IN FRANCE TOWARDS POLAND GOAL: Changing the image of Poland in France. In the minds of the French people, changing the view that France will be filled by Polish migrant workers symbolized as a “plumber”. METHOD: Advertisement Campaign: A Polish model (Piotr Adamski) calling the French people in his own country. 4 months extensive training resulted with more than 2000 interviews with the model.
SUCCESS STORIES – 2 POLAND - 2 IMAGE MANAGEMENT FOR STEREOTYPES IN FRANCE TOWARDS POLAND RESULT: A significant change occured in the minds of the French people vis-a-vis Poland Eurobarometer No:58 (2002) 17% of the French population supports Poland’s EU membership Eurobarometer 60 (2003) 42% of the French population supports Poland’s EU membership Eurobarometer 62 (2004) 50% of the French population supports Poland’s EU membership
Estonia 2001: Before the EU Negotiations For EU : % 35 Anti EU : % 51 2003: Referandum for EU Membership For EU: % 67 2008: Eurobarometer For EU: %78
“The lifes of British people wasted in their tiny offices; there are only a couple of ours left where we feel ourselves free. Nevertheless, in this couple of hours we, the Brits, have to deal with stinky Southern Europeans who fills the Undergroung” 2006, The Guardian
EU Membership process is a long one not just for Turkey; but for all candidate countries. • United Kingdom’s EU candidacy talks were vetoed two times by France in 1963 and 1967. • Charles de Gaulle proposed a “priviledged partnership” to UK when he first vetoed UK’s EU membership in 1963.
So; it is not only Turkey who faces with such kind of difficulties during the EU membership process. Some other candidate countries faced with much harder situation, reaching to “racism” in this process. • Any “negative” view on Turkey does not reflect the general view of whole Europe and whole EU citizens. This is something we need to keep in mind!!! • Some “clever” candidate countries found a chance to turn the “negative” image into a successful promotion material (as it is in the case of Poland).
Place: Madrid, Spain Date: 18 February 2010 Event: Atletico Madrid vs. Galatasaray; semi-finals for UEFA 2010
The View of Turkey in Europe Mamma li Turchi * * Mommy!! The Turks are coming!!
The View of Turkey in Europe – 1 Source: European Commission Date: 1976 Number of countries covered: 9 QUESTION Is there any country you want to see in the EU in the next 5 years? ANSWER Switzerland % 50 Spain % 44 Austria % 39 Greece %24 Turkey %10 The answers coming from Germany, Italy and Belgium show that “due to the country’s geographical and cultural distance from Europe” Turkey should not be a member of the EC.
The View of Turkey in Europe – 2 Source: European Commission (Eurobarometer) Date: 2010 (November) Number of countries covered: 27 QUESTION I ....... Turkey’s EU membership in case Turkey fulfills all necessary criterias ANSWER SUPPORT % 30 DON’T SUPPORT % 59 DON’t KNOW % 11 Even after 34 years, the support for Turkey’s EU membership is still LOW in Europe.
The View of Turkey in Europe – 3 For sure there are reasons why there is not so much support for Turkey’s EU membership in Europe. Among them economic, political, cultural, geographical etc. Reasons can be counted. HOWEVER, with the opening of negotiation talks with Turkey in 2005, there occured a significant change in the way how Europeans think of Turkey. QUESTION I ....... Turkey’s EU membership in case Turkey fulfills all necessary criterias
The View of Turkey in Europe – 4 FRANCE (Nov. 2010) QUESTION - FRANCE I see Turkey’s EU membership as ................... ANSWER Positive % 19 Negative % 71 QUESTION - FRANCE I ....... Turkey’s EU membership in case Turkey fulfills all necessary criterias (economic, social, political etc.) ANSWER SUPPORT % 35 DON’T SUPPORT % 65
The View of Turkey in Europe – 5 FRANCE QUESTION – FRANCE (year 2005) A survey conducted by Le Figaro and IPSOS, the day of EU Constitution Referandum in France. Why you voted “NO” in the Referandum? 18 % of the voters specified that TURKEY was the reason for “NO VOTE” French Quartet (From Left to Right) Sarkozy-Chirac-D’Estaign-Le Pen
Marine Le Pen New leader of Front National
The View of Turkey in Europe – 6 AUSTRIA (Nov. 2010) QUESTION - AUSTRIA I see Turkey’s EU membership as ................... ANSWER Positive % 7 Negative % 85 QUESTION - AUSTRIA I ....... Turkey’s EU membership in case Turkey fulfills all necessary criterias (economic, social, political etc.) ANSWER SUPPORT % 16 DON’T SUPPORT % 79 Total population of Austria: 8 million Total population of Turkish origined Austrians: 250.000
The View of Turkey in Europe – 7 COUNTRIES MOST FAVORABLE WITH TURKEY’s EU MEMBERSHIP NOVEMBER 2010 Romania 61% Hungary 52% Sweden 52% Slovenia 48% Lithuania 41%
Italy Forza Nuova’s Meeting Poster (2008) La Stampa (Italy) 2007
Takvim Newspaper, 24 June 2008 (Turkey) 2008 UEFA Turkey-Croatia
“Mommy, the Pope!!”, 2006 La Stampa (İtaly)
Room for creativity-DENMARK Place: Copenhagen, Denmark Date: 16 December 2004 Event: The day when EU Heads of States “unanimously” declared Turkey as a “candidate country” in Brussels (Copenhagen-Brussels: 766 KM)
H. C. Andersen’s Little Mermaid-DENMARK 1964 2007 2004 2008 2010
Mapping Stereotypes: Geography of Prejudices A Project by a Russian graphic designer living in the UK, Yanko Tsevetkov His blog was visited by more than 500 m. people worldwide, following the publication of maps in the Telegraph on Sptember 2010. The story behind the maps/project is simple: the artist wanted to amuse his friends during Europe’s energy crisis in 2009. The artist receives “requests” through his blog and decides “what to draw” accordingly.
The View of Europe in Turkey Arrivano i Turchi * * Turks are coming!!
+ 1 Syndrome A PERSONAL STORY EU in 2004 15 + 10 + 1 + 2 EU in 2007 CEE Countries Turkey Romania Bulgaria 25+ 2+1 EU in 2008 Romania Bulgaria Turkey 27+1+1+1 EU in 2012 * Turkey Croatia Macedonia 27+1+1 + 5 Albania Bosnia Monte Negro Serbia Kosovo Croatia Turkey Macedonia
“We are a full member of EU in 1998 latest” from Tansu Çiller (Prime Minister) Hürriyet, 7 May 1995 (Turkey)
The View of Europe in Turkey – 1 For sure there are different consideration regarding Turkey’s EU membership in Turkey among the Turkish population. These might be political, economic, social etc. HOWEVER it is important to note that the EU support in Turkey fluctuated so much in time. QUESTION I see Turkey’s EU membership as ................... Source: Eurobarometer
The View of Europe in Turkey – 2 QUESTION Do you think EU membership will be beneficial to Turkey or not? (2011) ANSWER Will be beneficial % 57 It will not be beneficial % 43 QUESTION Why EU membership will not be beneficial for Turkey? (2011) ANSWER I am against EU %33 We do not need EU %20 We will loose our sovereignty %17 It will stop economic growth %17 It will effect our democracy %10