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CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals Fourth Edition. Chapter 5 Router and IOS Basics. Objectives. Describe the benefits of network segmentation with routers Understand the elements of the Cisco router user interface

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objectives
Objectives
  • Describe the benefits of network segmentation with routers
  • Understand the elements of the Cisco router user interface
  • Configure the HyperTerminal program to interface with the Cisco router
  • Describe the various router configuration modes

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

objectives continued
Objectives (continued)
  • Describe the various router passwords
  • Understand the enhanced editing features of the Cisco IOS
  • Compare router components to typical PC components

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

benefits of routing
Benefits of Routing
  • Routers provide
    • Packet filtering
    • Connections between local networks
    • Traffic control
    • Wide area network (WAN) connections
  • Routers operate at the Network layer of the OSI reference model
    • Because of Network layer addressing, routers can direct packets to both local and remote segments

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

cisco router user interface
Cisco Router User Interface
  • Cisco Internetwork Operating System (IOS)
    • Provides a command-line interface (CLI)
      • Allows network operators to check the status of the router and network administrators to manage and configure the router
  • You can access a router in several different ways
    • Console port (also known as the console)
    • Auxiliary port (AUX)
    • Virtual terminals (VTY)
    • Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) server

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

connecting via terminal programs
Connecting via Terminal Programs
  • When configuring the router through the console or AUX ports
    • You must first make the physical connection
    • Then, you can access the router through a terminal program
  • Steps to configure HyperTerminal:
    • Open the HyperTerminal application
    • Click File on the menu bar, and then click New Connection
    • Enter a name for the connection

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

connecting via terminal programs continued
Connecting via Terminal Programs (continued)
  • Steps to configure HyperTerminal: (continued)
    • Configure how you will connect to the router via the Connect To dialog box
      • If you are connecting to the router through the AUX port, you would provide the router phone number here
      • If connecting to the router through the console port, click the “Connect using” list box and choose the COM port to which the RJ-45 to DB-9 connector is attached
    • Configure the following settings for the COM port: Bits per second, 9600; Data bits, 8; Parity, None; Stop bits, 1; Flow control, None

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

system configuration dialog
System Configuration Dialog
  • If the router has not been configured previously, or if the startup file has been erased
    • The Cisco IOS will prompt you to run the initial configuration dialog after the router boots
  • The system configuration dialog presents a series of prompts that guide you through the initial configuration for the router

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

user interface
User Interface
  • The initial prompt consists of two parts:
    • The host name of the router followed by the greater than symbol (>)
    • Default:router>
  • User EXEC mode (or user mode)
    • When the prompt displayed is the greater than symbol
    • Network operator can check router status and review several of the router settings

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

user interface continued
User Interface (continued)
  • The question mark activates context-sensitive Help on the Cisco router
  • User mode does not allow you to configure the router
    • To do this, you must go into the privileged EXEC mode
  • To enter privileged EXEC, you can type the enable command at the user mode prompt
    • Next, you may be prompted for a password
    • Greater than symbol (>) changes to a pound sign (#)

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

user interface continued1
User Interface (continued)
  • You can do a few things at this prompt
    • Setup: the setup command will cause the router to enter the system configuration dialog
    • Copy: configurations can be copied from TFTP servers to the router and therefore change the router configuration
    • Erase: configuration files as well as the entire IOS can be erased

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

configuration modes
Configuration Modes
  • Global configuration mode
    • Accessed by typing configure terminal at the enable mode prompt
  • Interface configuration mode
    • Allows you to configure the Ethernet and serial interfaces on your router
  • Line configuration mode
    • Allows you to configure the virtual terminals, console, and AUX lines that let you access the router

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

configuration modes continued
Configuration Modes (continued)
  • Typing exit will take you back one level
  • Typing end or pressing the Ctrl+Z keys will take you all the way back to the enable prompt
  • Often, you can discover abbreviated commands by simply trying them
    • The router will show you the point at which you entered an incorrect character

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

configuration modes continued1
Configuration Modes (continued)

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

plethora of passwords
Plethora of Passwords

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

plethora of passwords continued
Plethora of Passwords (continued)
  • Enable Password and Enable Secret Password configuration
    • You can set both passwords from the global configuration mode prompt
    • Because it is encrypted, the enable secret password is more secure than the enable password
    • You can type no enable secret and no enable password at the global configuration mode prompt
      • To remove the enable secret and enable passwords

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

plethora of passwords continued1
Plethora of Passwords (continued)

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

plethora of passwords continued2
Plethora of Passwords (continued)
  • Setting Line passwords
    • Line passwords are the first line of defense against unauthorized intrusion into the router
    • You can set passwords for each line used to configure the router
    • Configure the console line password
      • Enter line configuration mode
    • You can also configure passwords on the five virtual terminal lines that exist on every router
      • In much the same way as on the console port

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

plethora of passwords continued3
Plethora of Passwords (continued)

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

plethora of passwords continued4
Plethora of Passwords (continued)

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

plethora of passwords continued5
Plethora of Passwords (continued)

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

enhanced editing
Enhanced Editing
  • By default, the router supports enhanced editing features that allow you to modify lengthy commands
  • The enhanced editing commands let you jump to the beginning or end of a command line
  • You can also jump forward or back, character by character, or word by word
  • You can turn off the enhanced editing features by typing terminal no editing at either the user EXEC or the privileged EXEC prompts
    • You can turn on terminal editing by typing terminal editing

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

enhanced editing continued
Enhanced Editing (continued)

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

command history
Command History
  • Command history
    • Allows you to retrieve previously typed commands
  • You can see up to 10 previously typed commands by typing show history
    • From either the user EXEC or privileged EXEC mode
  • To modify the number of commands stored by the router, you can use the terminal command
    • Up to 256 previous commands
    • Type terminal history size n

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

configuring router identification
Configuring Router Identification
  • Router host name
    • Default host name is router
    • To set the router host name, type hostname followed by the name that you want to set
  • Configure a banner
    • A banner is a message that you can configure to display each time someone attempts to log in to the router
    • Enter global configuration mode by typing config t
      • Then type banner motd, followed by a space and a delimiting character

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

configuring router identification continued
Configuring Router Identification (continued)

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

configuring router identification continued1
Configuring Router Identification (continued)

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

configuring router identification continued2
Configuring Router Identification (continued)
  • Configure an interface description
    • Use the description command
    • The interface description helps you remember which network the interface services

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

configuring the time and date
Configuring the Time and Date
  • Use the clock set command in enable mode to configure the time
    • You must be in global configuration mode to configure the time zone

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

router components
Router Components
  • This section discusses the hardware elements of the router:
    • ROM
    • Flash memory
    • NVRAM
    • RAM/DRAM
    • Interfaces

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

slide37
ROM
  • Read-only memory (ROM)
    • Loads the bootstrap program that initializes the router’s basic hardware components
    • Not modified during normal operations, but it can be upgraded with special plug-in chips
  • The content of ROM is maintained even when the router is rebooted
  • The ROM monitor firmware runs when the router is turned on or rebooted

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

flash memory
Flash Memory
  • Flash memory
    • A type of erasable, programmable, read-only memory (EPROM)
    • Not typically modified during normal operations
      • However, it can be upgraded or erased when necessary
  • The content of flash memory is maintained even when the router is rebooted
  • Flash memory
    • Contains the working copy of the current Cisco IOS
    • Is the component that initializes the IOS for normal router operations

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

nvram
NVRAM
  • Nonvolatile random access memory (NVRAM)
    • A special type of RAM that is not cleared when the router is rebooted
  • The startup configuration file for the router is stored in NVRAM by default
    • This is the first file created by the person who sets up the router
  • The Cisco IOS uses the configuration file in NVRAM during the router boot process

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

ram dram
RAM/DRAM
  • Random access memory (RAM)
    • Also known as dynamic random access memory (DRAM)
    • A volatile hardware component
    • Its information is not maintained in the event of a router reboot
  • Changes to the router’s running configuration take place in RAM/DRAM

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

ram dram continued
RAM/DRAM (continued)
  • The IOS contains commands to view each of the router’s components
    • show running-config
    • show memory
    • show buffers
    • show startup-config
    • Copy running-config startup-config
      • Abbreviated as Copy run start

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

interfaces
Interfaces
  • A router can ship with a variety of configurable interfaces
    • A common interface is Ethernet0
  • Other types of interfaces include:
    • Token Ring
    • Basic Rate Interface (BRI)
    • Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
    • Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)
    • Channel Interface Processor (CIP) for Systems Network Architecture (SNA)
    • High-Speed Serial Interface (HSSI)

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

summary
Summary
  • Cisco routers use the Cisco IOS to provide an interface for network operators and administrators
  • The first mode entered is user EXEC (router> prompt) and the next mode is privileged EXEC (router# prompt)
  • In user EXEC, you can accomplish basic tasks
  • To actually configure the router, privileged EXEC mode must be accessed
  • The privileged EXEC mode is often called enable mode

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

summary continued
Summary (continued)
  • The enable, enable secret, and VTY passwords are set during initial configuration if the system configuration dialog is used
  • When configured, the enable secret password supersedes the enable password
  • The components of a router include ROM, flash memory, NVRAM, RAM/DRAM, and interfaces
  • ROM stores a limited version of the Cisco IOS and routines for checking the hardware during system boot

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition

summary continued1
Summary (continued)
  • Flash memory stores the Cisco IOS that is loaded by default during system boot
  • NVRAM stores the startup copy of the router configuration file that is loaded by default during system boot
  • RAM/DRAM stores the working copy (running configuration) of the router configuration
  • Interfaces provide connectivity to various types of LANs and WANs

CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals, Fourth Edition