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Logic: as tool of Philosophy. Science of correct reasoning Nature of man: correct thinking To examine our ability to adapt: in difficult or controversial cases. Organizing ideas/arguments: expressing them with more accuracy drawing legitimate conclusions. FORMAL & MATERIAL LOGIC.

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logic as tool of philosophy
Logic: as tool of Philosophy
  • Science of correct reasoning
    • Nature of man: correct thinking
    • To examine our ability to adapt:
      • in difficult or controversial cases.
    • Organizing ideas/arguments:
      • expressing them with more accuracy
      • drawing legitimate conclusions.
formal material logic
FORMAL & MATERIAL LOGIC
  • FORMAL LOGIC
    • CORRECTNESS RATHER THAN THE TRUTH
      • Has to do with correctness or sequence or the following of rules.
    • Not on the material content of the argument.
    • To reason correctly is not necessarily the same as to reason truthfully.
slide3
E.g. Formal Logic:

Practice makes perfect

Nobody is perfect

Why practice?

slide4
Pagsumama ka samatalino, tatalino ka rin!
  • Pagsumama ka saadik, magigingadik ka rin!
  • Try mo sumamasa AKIN…
  • Bakamaging AKIN ka rin!
slide5
MATERIAL LOGIC
    • Concerned with the truth
    • thought-contents is in correspondence with reality
      • Connection: mind & real order
slide6
E.g. Material Logic

The human soul is endowed with intellect and will;

But, what is endowed with intellect and will is spiritual;

Ergo, the human soul is spiritual.

slide7
Potential recruits of Mass Media Industry are students who completed their course in Communication.
  • I’ve successfully completed my course in Communication last March of 2010.
  • I am therefore qualified to be a recruit of the Mass Media Industry.
arguments
Arguments
  • Nature of an argument
    • Argument is an inferential thinking that is composed of conclusion and premise(assertion/statement) from which the conclusion is inferred.
    • Inferential: the process of reasoning from a premise to a conclusion; in which the conclusion is drawn from evidential reasoning.
slide9
E.g.
    • Premise 1: anything that moves is moved by another;
    • Premise 2: but, the ball moves
    • Conclusion: therefore, the ball is moved by another.
inferential
INFERENTIAL?

PREMISES

WHAT IS CLAIMED TO FOLLOW FROM THE EVIDENCE

CLAIMED EVIDENCE

CONCLUSION

valid invalid arguments
VALID & INVALID ARGUMENTS
  • Valid: (T-T) INFERENTIAL
    • The conclusion is true because of the true premises.
    • It is impossible that the premises of an argument are true and the conclusion false
valid arguments
VALID ARGUMENTS

E.g.

1.  All chickboys have multiple partners/girlfriends. 

2.  Ysmael & Iggy Boy have 10 girlfriends each at the same time. 

__________________________

3.  Therefore, Ysmael & Iggy Boy are both chickboys.

valid arguments1
VALID ARGUMENTS

1.  All people who are born in the United States are U.S. citizens. 

2.  Tutoy was born in the United States. 

____________________

3.  Therefore, Tutoy is a U.S. citizen. 

valid arguments2
VALID ARGUMENTS

1.  All mammals have kidneys.

2.  Plants do not have kidneys.

____________________

3.  Therefore, plants are not mammals. 

invalid arguments presumptuous
INVALID ARGUMENTS (PRESUMPTUOUS)
  • T-F
  • The premises are true and the conclusion is false.
    • fallacy of affirming the consequent.
  • “Inductive: assuming”
    • “not necessarily… probably!”
  • (+) If it rains, then the ground gets wet.
  • (+) But, the ground is wet;
  • (-) Therefore, it rained.
invalid arguments
INVALID ARGUMENTS

1.  If Arn-Arn is in Hollywood, then he is in California.

2.  Arn-Arn is in California.

______________________

3. Therefore, Arn-Arn is in Hollywood. 

invalid arguments1
INVALID ARGUMENTS

1.  Horses are not reptiles.

2.  Mr. Diego is not a reptile.

_________________

3.  Therefore, Mr. Diego is a horse. 

slide18
“masarapmagmahal,
  • nagmamahalako, samakatuwid…
  • masarapako!”
  • God is love,
  • but love is blind.
  • Therefore, God is blind!”
valid yet absurd
VALID YET ABSURD
  • F-F
  • The premises are false (NOT MATERIAL) and it follows that the conclusion is false(NOT MATERIAL!)
  • It is valid because: the way in which the premises and conclusion are structured is “FORMALLY CORRECT!”
  • ALL TREES ARE WOMEN
  • BUT, ALL MEN ARE TREES
  • THEREFORE, ALL WOMEN ARE MEN
valid unsound
VALID: UNSOUND
  • One premise: false/true
  • Conclusion: true (accidental)
  • E.g.
  • (+) All dogs are animal;
  • (-) But, all cats are dogs;
  • (+) Therefore, all cats are animals.
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