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Ag Science. Meat Product Quality. Nutritional values of meat products. The physical composition of meat is what can be measured The muscle (lean), fat, bone, and tendons are the physical features

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ag science

Ag Science

Meat Product Quality

nutritional values of meat products
Nutritional values of meat products
  • The physical composition of meat is what can be measured
  • The muscle (lean), fat, bone, and tendons are the physical features
  • Chemical composition and nutritional values are directly related
slide3
A. The chemical composition of a muscle determines its nutritive value as meat.
    • Muscles are made of water, protein, fat, and minerals.
    • Vitamins like A, D, E, and K are in the fat, and B vitamins in the

muscle.

slide4
B. The nutritive value of meat provides a balance of vitamins and minerals and is known as nutrient-dense.
    • Nutrient density is a measurement of the food value.
    • This compares the number of calories in food to the amount of essential nutrients available.
vitamins
Vitamins
  • 1. Iron helps to build and maintain blood hemoglobin.
  • 2. Zinc helps with tissue development and growth.
  • 3. B vitamins (e.g., niacin, riboflavin, B6, B12, and thiamine) and are an excellent source of protein.
wholesale and retail cuts
Wholesale and Retail Cuts
  • The major wholesale cuts of beef, pork, and lamb are beneficial in understanding tenderness and quality.
  • The location of these cuts determines the price of the finished product.
  • A. The wholesale and retail cuts of the beef carcass are as:
wholesale vs retail
Wholesale vs. Retail
  • 1. Round— Contains the following retail cuts: round steak, top round roast, top round steak, boneless rump roast, bottom round roast, tip roast (cap off), eye round roast, and tip steak.
wholesale vs retail8
Wholesale vs. Retail
  • 2. Sirloin— Contains the following retail cuts: sirloin steak, sirloin steak round bone, top sirloin steak, tenderloin roast/steak, and beef tri-tip
wholesale vs retail9
Wholesale vs. Retail
  • 3. Short loin—Contains the following retail cuts: boneless top loin steak, T-bone steak, Porterhouse steak, and tenderloin roast/steak.
  • 4. Rib - Contains the following retail cuts: rib roast (large end), rib steak (small end), rib eye steak, rib eye roast, and back ribs.
wholesale vs retail10
Wholesale vs. Retail
  • 5. Chuck—Contains the following retail cuts: chuck eye roast, boneless top blade steak, arm pot roast, boneless shoulder pot roast, cross-rib pot roast, mock tender, blade roast, under blade pot roast, 7-bone pot roast, short ribs
  • 6. Brisket—Contains the following retail cuts: brisket (whole), corned brisket point half, and brisket flat half.
  • 7. Shank—Contains shank cross cut.
wholesale vs retail11
Wholesale vs. Retail
  • 8. Plate—Contains skirt steak
  • 9. Flank—Contains the following retail cuts: flank steak
  • 10. Other retail cuts include ground beef, cubed steak,

stew meat and

cubes for kabobs.

what are the wholesale and retail cuts of beef pork and lamb13
What are the wholesale and retail cuts of beef, pork, and lamb?
  • B. The wholesale and retail cuts of the pork carcass are:
  • 1. Leg—Contains the following retail cuts: bone-in fresh ham, smoked ham, leg cutlets, and fresh boneless ham roast.
what are the wholesale and retail cuts of beef pork and lamb14
What are the wholesale and retail cuts of beef, pork, and lamb?
  • 2. Loin—This contains the following retail cuts: sirloin chop, rib chop, loin chop, boneless rib end chop, chef’s prime filet, boneless center loin chop, America’s cut butterfly chop, center rib roast, bone-in sirloin roast, boneless center loin roast, boneless rib roast, tenderloin, Canadian-style bacon, country-style ribs, and back ribs.
what are the wholesale and retail cuts of beef pork and lamb15
What are the wholesale and retail cuts of beef, pork, and lamb?
  • 3. Boston Shoulder—This contains the following retail cuts: bone-in blade roast, boneless blade roast, ground pork, sausage, and blade steak.
  • 4. Picnic shoulder—This contains the following retail cuts: smoked picnic, arm picnic roast, and smoked hocks.
  • 5. Side—This contains the following retail cuts: spareribs, slab bacon, and sliced bacon.
what are the wholesale and retail cuts of beef pork and lamb16
What are the wholesale and retail cuts of beef, pork, and lamb?
  • 6. Other retail cuts include cubed steak, pork pieces, cubes for kabobs, ground pork, and sausage links.
what are the wholesale and retail cuts of beef pork and lamb17
What are the wholesale and retail cuts of beef, pork, and lamb?
  • C. The wholesale and retail cuts of the lamb carcass are as follows:
  • 1. Leg—This contains the following retail cuts: whole leg, short cut leg (sirloin off), center leg roast, center slice, American-style roast, sirloin chop, and boneless sirloin.
what are the wholesale and retail cuts of beef pork and lamb18
What are the wholesale and retail cuts of beef, pork, and lamb?
  • 2. Loin—This contains the following retail cuts: loin roast, loin chop
what are the wholesale and retail cuts of beef pork and lamb19
What are the wholesale and retail cuts of beef, pork, and lamb?
  • 3. Rib—This contains the following retail cuts: rib roast, rib chop, and crown roast.
  • 4. Shoulder—This contains the following retail cuts: square-cut shoulder (whole), boneless shoulder roast, blade chop, and arm chop.
  • 5. Foreshank and breast—This contains the following retail cuts: shank, spareribs and riblets.
  • 6. Other retail cuts include lamb for stew, cubes for kabobs, and ground lamb.
beef grading system
Beef Grading System
  • Beef carcasses are graded for yield and quality grades, based on maturity and marbling
beef grading system21
Beef Grading System
  • Yield grade is an estimate of the percent yield for the four primal cuts of beef: chuck, rib, loin, and round.
    • Yield grade = cutability.
  • A. Quality grading is important for consumer satisfaction.
    • The color and texture affect meat palatability, flavor, and juiciness.
beef grading system22
Beef Grading System
  • 1. Maturity
    • Maturity refers to the physiological age
    • Maturity indicators are bone characteristics, ossification of cartilage, and color/texture of the rib eye muscle.
quality grading
Quality Grading
  • 2. Marbling (the intramuscular fat in muscle)
    • This can be evaluated between the 12th and 13th ribs.
    • The amount and distribution of the marbling in the rib eye is evaluated at the cut surface
yield grade
Yield Grade
  • B. USDA yield grades for beef carcasses are rated from 1 to 5.
  • Yield Grade 1 is the highest yielding carcass, and Yield Grade 5 lowest.
  • To find yield grades, a carcass is evaluated on the following factors:
  • 1. Amount of external fat—The external fat is measured at the 12th rib
yield grade25
Yield Grade
  • 2. Hot carcass weight— Taken at the harvesting facility before the carcass is chilled
yield grade26
Yield Grade
  • 3. Kidney/pelvic/heart (KPH) fat—The KPH is shown as a percentage of the carcass weight.
  • 4. Rib eye —The area of the rib eye muscle is graded by using a dot-grid @ 12th rib
  • Yield grade = 2.5 + [(2.50 x adjusted fat thickness, inches) + 0.2 percent of kidney, pelvic, and heart + (0.0038 x hot carcass weight, pounds) - (0.32 x area rib eye, square inches)]
how are quality and yield grades of live animals estimated
How are quality and yield grades of live animals estimated?
  • The ability to estimate quality and yield grades of live animals helps livestock producers and breeders evaluate livestock and determine the correct time to market animals.
  • Buyers and packers also evaluate correctness of condition and estimate yields
  • Ultrasound technology helps with this process but visual evaluation is faster and less expensive.
how are quality and yield grades of live animals estimated30
How are quality and yield grades of live animals estimated?

Conformation describes the animal’s external form and shape.

  • Visual evaluation of the

different stages can be used

to predict carcass

composition.

how are quality and yield grades of live animals estimated31
How are quality and yield grades of live animals estimated?
  • D. Major factors to consider when evaluating livestock and estimating quality and yield grades:
    • 1. Age/maturity of the animal—Evaluate bone structure, teeth, and evidence of the chine bone.
    • 2. Marbling potential—Reference points on an animal (loin, ham, leg of a lamb)
    • 3. Hide color—
      • Beef animals with black hides typically perform higher on quality tests
    • 4. External fat—The loin, tail-head, and dock
slide32
What is the swine grading system? What are the factors that affect quality and yield grades of swine carcasses?
  • The swine grading system varies slightly, depending on the class of carcass.
  • Various factors can affect the quality and yield grades.
slide33
What is the swine grading system? What are the factors that affect quality and yield grades of swine carcasses?
  • A. The swine grading system uses muscling scores and back fat thickness to determine USDA Grades.
    • Barrow, gilt, sow, boar, and stag are the harvest swine carcass classes. Barrows and gilts are classed together with grade standards.
    • Sows have different grade standards.
    • Boars and stags are not commonly used in major swine carcass production because the boar flavor is unacceptable for grading; therefore, no official grade standards exist for boars or stags.
slide34
What is the swine grading system? What are the factors that affect quality and yield grades of swine carcasses?
  • B. Grades for barrows and gilts are based on the quality characteristics of the lean and expected combined yields of the four lean cuts: ham, loin, Boston shoulder, and picnic shoulder.
  • 1. The degree of muscling of a swine carcass is categorized as:
    • a. Muscle Score #1—thin/inferior muscling
    • b. Muscle Score #2—average
    • c. Muscle Score #3—thick/superior muscling
slide36
What is the swine grading system? What are the factors that affect quality and yield grades of swine carcasses?
  • 2. The whole carcass and the loin eye area are used to determine the muscling score.
    • The area between the 10th and 11th rib is used to measure carcass muscle.
    • The levels of quality are “acceptable” and “unacceptable.”
    • The quality is determined by viewing the cut surface of the loin at the 10th rib.
slide37
What is the swine grading system? What are the factors that affect quality and yield grades of swine carcasses?
  • a. Quality characteristics (e.g., gray-pink in color, fine muscle fibers, and good marbling) are indicators of an acceptable lean/meat.
slide38
What is the swine grading system? What are the factors that affect quality and yield grades of swine carcasses?
  • b. Yields of the lean cuts (ham, loin, Boston shoulder, and picnic shoulder) will differ due to the amount of fatness, muscling, and skeletal size.
    • USDA Grade for swine carcasses is determined by using the following formula:
    • (4.0 × last rib back fat thickness (in inches) – 1.0 × muscle score).
    • The muscle score is determined by using the following: thin = 1.0, average = 2.0, and thick = 3.0.
slide39
What is the lamb grading system? What are the factors that affect quality and yield grades of lamb carcasses?
  • Sheep are classified by sex and maturity.
  • Sheep are graded for quality and yield grades.
    • Young lamb carcasses (2 to 14 months of age) have a characteristic break joint on one of their shanks after the front legs are removed.
    • On mutton carcasses, the break joints have ossified.
    • Yearling mutton carcasses range in age from 12 to 15 months.
    • The yearling mutton differs from a traditional mutton carcass by the color of the lean (pinkish red to a dark red) and shape of the rib bones.
slide40
What is the lamb grading system? What are the factors that affect quality and yield grades of lamb carcasses?
  • A. The quality grade in a lamb carcass is determined by the maturity, conformation, and flank streaking.
  • 1. Maturity is determined by bone color/shape and lean color.
slide41
What is the lamb grading system? What are the factors that affect quality and yield grades of lamb carcasses?
  • 2. Conformation of a carcass is the overall thickness of the muscling.
    • Lamb carcasses are not ribbed; therefore, the rib-eye areas are not exposed and cannot be used for an overall evaluation of marbling.
slide42
What is the lamb grading system? What are the factors that affect quality and yield grades of lamb carcasses?
  • 3. Flank streaking is used to predict marbling in a lamb carcass.
    • The streaks of fat in the flank muscle are used to determine marbling.
slide43
What is the lamb grading system? What are the factors that affect quality and yield grades of lamb carcasses?
  • The grades for lambs are:
    • a. Prime (highest)
    • b. Choice (most lambs fall into this category)
    • c. Good
    • d. Utility
slide44
What is the lamb grading system? What are the factors that affect quality and yield grades of lamb carcasses?
  • B. Yield grades are an estimate of the retail cuts from the leg, loin, rack, and shoulder.
    • The yield grade of a lamb carcass can be found by using the following equation: (Back fat × 10) + 0.4.
    • For example, if a lamb carcass had 0.20 inches of back fat, the yield grade would equal (0.20 × 10 = 2.0) + 0.4 = yield grade of 2.4.
slide45
What is the lamb grading system? What are the factors that affect quality and yield grades of lamb carcasses?
  • The yield grades of lamb carcasses range from USDA 1 to 5. USDA 1 is the most desirable, showing minimum fat and heavy muscle.
    • USDA 3 grade is average.
    • USDA 5 grade is the least desirable, showing light muscle and heavy fat.
review
Review
  • What are the physical and chemical compositions of meat products? What are the nutritional values of meat products?
  • What are the wholesale and retail cuts of beef, pork, and lamb?
  • What is the beef grading system? What are the factors that affect quality and yield grades of beef carcasses? How do you calculate yield and quality grades?
review47
Review
  • What is the swine grading system? What are the factors that affect quality and yield grades of swine carcasses?
  • What is the lamb grading system? What are the factors that affect quality and yield grades of lamb carcasses?
  • How are quality and yield grades of live animals estimated?