Chapter 7 Control of Microorganisms. Definitions Conditions Influencing Antimicrobial Activity Physical Methods Chemical Agents Preservation of Microbial Cultures. Definitions.
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Air incinerators used with fermenters; generally operated at 500°C
Used for dry glassware & heat-resistant metal equipment
Typically 2 hr at 160°C is required to kill bacterial spores by dry heat: this does not include the time for the glass to reach the required temp (penetration time) nor does it include the cooling time
At one time were frequently used medically as antiseptics but much of their use has been replaced by less toxic alternatives
Examples: 1% silver nitrate was used as opthalmic drops in newborn infants to prevent gonorrhea; has been replaced by erythromycin or other antibiotics; copper sulfate used as algicide in swimming pools
The reciprocal of the maximum effective dilution for the test disinfectant is divided by the reciprocal of the maximum effective dilution for phenol to get the phenol coefficient
For example:Suppose that, on the test with Salmonella typhiThe maximum effective dilution for phenol is 1/90The maximum effective dilution for “Disinfectant X” is 1/450The phenol coefficient for “Disinfectant X” with S. typhi = 450/90 = 5