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AFRICA AND AMERICAS. I. KUSHITES CONQUER THE NILE. A. PEOPLE OF NUBIA (KUSH) 1. LOCATION a. SOUTH OF EGYPT b. BETWEEN FIRST CATARACT AND FORK OF BLUE AND WHITE NILE. KUSH. 2. LINK FOR TRADE. a. NORTH – EGYPT AND MED. b. SOUTH – INTERIOR AFRICA AND RED SEA.

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AFRICA AND AMERICAS


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    1. AFRICA AND AMERICAS

    2. I. KUSHITES CONQUER THE NILE A. PEOPLE OF NUBIA (KUSH) 1. LOCATION a. SOUTH OF EGYPT b. BETWEEN FIRST CATARACT AND FORK OF BLUE AND WHITE NILE

    3. KUSH

    4. 2. LINK FOR TRADE a. NORTH – EGYPT AND MED. b. SOUTH – INTERIOR AFRICA AND RED SEA

    5. 3. INTERACTION OF EGYPT AND NUBIA a. NAPATA – CAPITAL, BECAME CENTER FOR SPREAD OF EGYPTIAN CULTURE

    6. b. ADOPTION OF EGYPTIAN CULTURE 1.) LANGUAGE 2.) RELIGION 3.) CULTURE AND CLOTHING

    7. c. EGYPT’S DECLINE 1.) KUSH TRIED TO RESTORE EGYPTIAN CULTURE 2.) CONQUERED PARTS OF EGYPT

    8. II. AKSUM (AXUM) A. LOCATION 1. ETHIOPIAN HIGHLANDS NEAR THE RED SEA AND NILE RIVER 2. LOCATED ON TRADE ROUTES CONNECTING THE ARABIAN PENINSULA, KUSH & EGYPT, AND INDIAN OCEAN MARITIME ROUTES

    9. AKSUM

    10. B. GROWTH AND CULTURAL DIFFUSION 1. CONQUERED KUSH AND NORTHERN ETHIOPIA 2. RELIGION INITIALLY POLYTHEISTIC WITH NATURE SPIRITS 3. CONVERTED TO CHRISTIANITY AROUND 4TH CENTURY A.D.

    11. III. SOUTH AFRICA AND GREAT ZIMBABWE A. LOCATION AND GEOGRAPHY 1. BETWEEN ZAMBEZI (NORTH) AND LIMPOPO (SOUTH) RIVERS 2. ON WELL WATERED PLATEAU

    12. B. GREAT ZIMBABWE 1. CONTROLLED TRADE ROUTES TO GOLD FIELDS 2. TAXES - TAXED TRADERS USING TRADE ROUTES

    13. ...ZIMBABWE 3. EFFECT – BECAME ECONOMIC, POLITICAL, & RELIGIOUS CENTER 4. AREA EVENTUALLY ADOPTED ISLAM THROUGH TRADE ROUTES

    14. IV. GHANA A. LOCATION 1. CENTRAL WESTERN AFRICA 2. NORTH OF NIGER RIVER 3. SOUTH OF SAHARAN DESERT

    15. NIGER RIVER GHANA

    16. B. GOLD FOR SALT TRADE 1. GOLD a. LOCATION – FROM FORESTED AREA BETWEEN NIGER AND SENEGAL RIVERS

    17. ...GOLD b. MINED OR TAKEN FROM RIVERS c. TRADE – TRADED FOR SALT AND GOODS

    18. 2. SALT a. LOCATION – SALT FROM SAHARAN DESERT b. TRADE 1.) CARAVANS CARRIED SALT & MED. GOODS

    19. …SALT 2.) TRADED FOR GOODS FROM MED. AND GOLD FROM GHANA

    20. ...SALT c. ESTABLISHED TRANS-SAHARAN TRADE ROUTES FROM N. AFRICA TO SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

    21. GHANA

    22. GHANA

    23. C. ISLAMIC INFLUENCES 1. SPREAD – BY TRADE AND CONQUEST 2. CONVERSION a. RULERS AND UPPER CLASS CONVERTED (NOT LOWER CLASSES)

    24. b. POLYTHEISTIC BELIEFS IN ISLAM 1.) ANIMISM – BELIEF THAT SPIRITS ARE PRESENT IN PLANT, ANIMAL, AND OTHER NATURAL FORCES INCLUDING SOULS OF THE DEAD ANCESTORS 2.) OBSERVED BY LOWER CLASSES ALONG WITH ISLAM

    25. V. MALI A. LOCATION 1. SOUTH OF SAHARA 2. SOUTHERN BORDER BOTH SIDES OF NIGER RIVER

    26. B. GOLD-SALT TRADE 1. MALI BUILT WEALTH ON GOLD 2. FOUND NEW DEPOSITS TO THE EAST 3. SHIFTED TRADE ROUTES EAST

    27. C. MANSA MUSA 1. MANSA – EMPEROR 2. EXPANDED EMPIRE AND DIVIDED INTO PROVINCES

    28. MANSA MUSA

    29. 3. EFFECTS OF HAJJ a. BUILT MOSQUES IN CITY b. TIMBUKTU 1.) BECAME IMPORTANT CITY

    30. ...HAJJ 2.) ATTRACTED JUDGES, DOCTORS, RELIGIOUS LEADERS, &SCHOLARS 3.) EFFECT – SPREAD ISLAM THROUGHOUT REGION

    31. VI. SONGHAI A. LOCATION 1. SOUTH OF SAHARAN DESERT 2. SOUTHERN BORDER BOTH SIDES OF NIGER RIVER

    32. ...LOCATION 3. FURTHEST EAST ALONG NIGER RIVER 4. TRADE ROUTES – GAINED CONTROL OVER ALL MAJOR TRADE ROUTES

    33. B. GOLD FOR SALT TRADE 1. CONTINUED TRADE ACROSS SAHARA 2. CONTINUED SPREAD OF ISLAM

    34. VII. MAYAN A. LOCATION 1. FROM SOUTHERN MEXICO TO NORTHERN CENTRAL AMERICA 2. CONTROLLED YUCATAN PENINSULA

    35. B. URBAN CENTERS 1. CITY STATES – STARTED AS COLLECTION OF INDEPENDENT CITY-STATES a. RULED BY A GOD-KING b. CENTERS FOR TRADE & RELIGION c. CHICHEN ITZA – MAJOR CITY STATE

    36. 2. ARCHITECTURE a. GIANT PYRAMIDS b. TEMPLES c. PALACES d. ELABORATE STONE CARVINGS

    37. C. AGRICULTURE AND TRADE 1. LINKS – THROUGH TRADE AND ALLIANCES 2. GOODS TRADED – SALT, FLINT, FEATHERS, SHELLS, CLOTH, HONEY, SHELLS

    38. ...AGRICULTURE 3. MONEY – CACAO BEANS (CHOCOLATE) 4. BASIS OF MAYAN LIFE a. AGRICULTURE b. CROPS – 1.) MAIZE 2.) BEANS 3.) SQUASH

    39. D. RELIGION 1. POLYTHEISTIC WITH NATURE SPIRITS 2. PERFORMED SOME HUMAN SACRIFICE

    40. VIII. AZTEC A. LOCATION & GEOGRAPHY 1. VALLEY OF MEXICO 2. MODERN DAY MEXICO CITY 3. SEVERAL LARGE, SHALLOW LAKES

    41. B. URBAN CENTERS 1. TEOTIHUACÁN a. FIRST MAJOR CITY STATE b. CENTER OF TRADE NETWORK