Biomass. G.R.E.E.N project Made by 4 class Italian group. WHAT IS BIOMASS?. In the developed world biomass is becoming more important for dual applications such as heat and power generation.
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Biomass G.R.E.E.N project Made by 4 classItaliangroup
WHAT IS BIOMASS? In the developed world biomass is becoming more important for dual applications such as heat and power generation. Biomass is a clean renewable energy resource derived from the waste of various human and natural activities. It excludes organic material which has been transformed by geological processes into substances such as coal or petroleum.
Mainsources Wood is the largest energy source of biomass: contributors include the timber industry, agricultural crops and raw materials from the forest. Waste energy is the second largest source of biomass energy. The main contributors are: municipal solid waste and manufacturing waste. Alcohol fuels is the third largest contributor and is derived mainly from corn
What can be used to make this? Any source can be used to fuel biomass energy production. We can use rubbish, animal manure, woodchips, seaweed, corn stalks and other wastes. Biomass is matter usually thought of as garbage. Some of the sources are just lying around: dead trees, left-over crops, woodchips, sawdust from lumber mills, even used tires and livestock manure will do.
Waste-to-Energy Plants Dispose Waste Providing electricity is not the major advantage of waste-to-energy plants that generate electricity. It actually costs more to generate electricity at a waste-to-energy plant than it does at a coal or hydropower plant. The major advantage of burning waste is that it reduces the amount of garbage we bury in landfills. Waste-to-energy plants dispose of the waste of 40 million people.
The average italianproduces more than 1,600 euro of waste a year. If all this waste were land filled, it would take more than two cubic meters of landfill space. That's the volume of a box 1 meter long, 1 meter wide, and 2 meters high. If that waste were burned, the ash residue would fit into a box 1 meter long, 1 meter wide, but only 23 centimeters high.
Solid Waste Incinerators Simply Dispose of Waste There also are solid waste incinerators that simply burn trash. They don't use the heat energy to make steam or electricity. Between waste-to-energy plants and solid waste incinerators, the United States burn 14% of solid waste.
HOW DOES IT WORK? • The harnessing of energy from biological mass (biomass) is a simple process. The waste wood and other sources are gathered in big trucks. The waste is then transported to a biomass plant. Here, the waste is fed into furnaces where it is burned. The heat created is used to boil water and the energy from the steam is used to rotate turbines and generators.
The second method, through which energy is created, is called Landfill Gas. When garbage is burned or is allowed to decompose it gives off methane gas. Pipelines are put into the landfills (pits in which garbage is burned) and the methane gas is collected. It is then used to make energy in power plants.
Turning Biomass into Electricity Boiler Biomass High Heat Steam Steam spins the turbine blades Rotating magnets create electricity
Inside a biomass steam boiler Fire heats the water
Use of Biomass fuels for plants The use of biomass can help reduce Global Warming. Plants use and store carbon dioxide (CO2) when they grow. When it burns or decomposes, it releases the CO2. Replanting plants, crops or trees etc. ensures that the C02 is reused. If the plants are not replanted the biomass will disrupt the natural carbon equilibrium and thus continue to contribute towards Global Warming.
APPLICATIONS OF BIOMASS ENERGY In rural India biomass is used for cooking and agricultural growth. It has been very useful for village households that own cattle. Through a simple process the cattle dung is used to produce a gas which is then used as fuel for cooking. The surplus dung is used as manure.
The use of sugarcane to produce electricity is increasingly being used in Indian sugar mills. After the juice has been extracted from the sugarcanes, the leftover pulp - bagasse - is sold to power plants. Here, the bagasse is burned. The energy produced is then provided to the sugar mills. Biomass power plants are becoming very popular. Using resources that are easily available makes the production of energy efficient and reliable.
ADVANTAGES • Biomass can be used for fuels, power production and productsthatwouldotherwise be made from fossilfuels. • Itdoesn’taddCO2 to the atmosphereasitabsorbs the sameamount of carbon in growingasitreleaseswhenconsumed with fuel. • It can be used to generate electricity with the sameequipment or powerplantsthat are nowburningfossilfuels.
ADVANTAGES • Itissensible to use wasteproductswherewe can. • Biomass fuelgenerallytends to be cheap. • Using biomasssourcesplaceslessdemaind on the Earth research. • The use of biomassenergyhas the potential to grealty reduce greenhouse gas emissions. • The use of biomass can reduce dependences of foreignoil.
DISADVANTAGES • Collecting sufficient quantities of waste can be difficult. • Burning the fuel creates greenhouse gases, although only a very little. • Certain materials aren’t always available.
BIOFUEL IN ITALY According to the estimatesproduced by Assocostieri, 2010/2025 projection in the consumption of fossilfuelsused in transportwillhave a reduction, whichwill be more sensitive to gasoline (-23%) and smaller for diesel fuel(-2,5% ). In realtermsisexpected to increase 33,7 milliontonsconsumed in 2010 in the sum of gasoline and diesel fuel, about30,8 milliontons2025.
As the trend for ethanol and bio-ETBE, the association of biofuelproducers estimate that the growth from 0,24 milliontonsisexpected to reach0,5 milliontons(… since 2010 1,2-1,4- 1,7 milliontonsextimated for 2025)
Even for biodiesel isestimated to increase in the sameperiod of time, evenif minor onethingiscertain: The targhet of 10% of energyconsumptionsustenaibletransport by 2020 enviseged in the ‘energy-climate’ of UE isnotreached, unlessweentroduced some significantchanges, suchasthosewhohope in the section on biomehtan. In our opinion Assocostieri’spredictionabout the evolution of biofuels are stilltoooptimistic.
Asiswellknown, the EuropeanCommissionhaslaunched a comparison to reach the moststringentsustainabilitycriteria for biofuels. So, from thispoint of view for example, the significantproportion of the nationalbio-diesel todayisproduced from palmoil from southeast Asia could be reduced, itaffects to diminish the extimatesthatwehavehighlightedhere.
Food or animal waste fermentsin the pond, releasing methane gas Methane is highly flammable!!
How to Capture Biogas Methane gas builds up under the rubber sheet Thick rubber sheets cover the pond
Tank type biogas plant Power Generator Biogas Capture Tanks Methane Gas Pipe