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Amateur Radio Foundation Licence Presentation

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  1. Amateur RadioFoundation LicencePresentation HAMCOLLEGE Produced by Neil Husk VK6BDO

  2. There are nine sections in the syllabus: Nature of Amateur Radio. Licence Conditions Technical basics Transmitters and Receivers Transmission lines and Antennas Propagation Interference Safety Operating practices and Procedures p87-92

  3. Examination The written exam consists of 25 multi choice type questions which are to be completed in 30 minutes. With the exam paper is an information sheet which will contain formula, graphs, charts and diagrams to assist you in answering the questions. You must obtain 70% (18 correct) to pass the theory and progress to the practical The practical exam includes several oral questions and will require you to do several demonstrations. p 92

  4. Nature of Amateur Radio Amateur radio is intended to facilitate the hobby of radio communications. Amateur radio as a hobby has many aspects: Technical Innovation Emergency communications Contesting Satellite Communications Digital Modes Fox Hunting And many more p 55

  5. Types of Licences Amateur radio activities are authorised under an amateur licence. Other forms of licences authorise other types of radio communication such as Citizens Band (CB); Land Mobile; Point to Point links; Broadcasting. p 55

  6. Licence Conditions Operation of an amateur station is subject to the conditions in the: Radiocommunications Act 1992 Radiocommunications Regulations 1993 Radiocommunications Licence Conditions (Amateur Licence) Determination No1 of 1997 Radiocommunications Licence Conditions (Apparatus Licence) Determination 2003 (as amended) The latest amendment was released in 2005. p 56

  7. Allocation of Frequency Bands The Amateur Service operates on frequency bands allocated for Amateur use. Other services such as broadcasting, aeronautical and maritime are allocated their own frequency bands. The amateur service shares some frequency bands with other services The allocated bands are laid down in the LCD P 55

  8. Purpose of the Amateur Service An Amateur Licence primarily authorises the operation of an amateur station for: Self training in radio communications; Intercommunications between amateurs Technical investigations into radio communications p 55

  9. Communications by Amateur Stations Except in a distress or emergency situation the amateur licence only authorises amateur to amateur communications. A Radio Inspector may authorise out of band operations for a specific reason. Amateurs may transmit messages on behalf of a third party with in Australia provided it is not for gain, commercial purposes, an advertisement or entertainment. Third party messages to other countries depends on that countries (the other country) laws. p 55

  10. Distress Signals Distress signals are used where “imminent danger exists to human life” Distress communications are indicated by the use of the word ‘Mayday’. Distress communications have priority over all other communications. Any person hearing a ‘Mayday’ communication are responsible for passing the information to an appropriate authority. p 57

  11. Urgency Signals Urgency signals are used where human life is not in imminent danger but assistance is urgently required. Urgency signals are indicated by the use of ‘Pan Pan’ Urgency signals receive priority of all communications except distress signals. Urgency signals should be reported to an appropriate authority. p 57

  12. Question 1 An amateur licence allows the holder to transmit on: A. Marine Bands B. Aeronautical Bands C. Amateur Bands D. Any HF Band ANSWER: C - Amateur Bands

  13. Question 2 Amateur radio is intended to facilitate: A. Commercial gain in radio communications B. A way of saving on phone bills C. A way of using unwanted commercial radio equipment D. A hobby in radio communications ANSWER: D - A hobby in radio communications

  14. Question 3 You hear an urgency message, you should: A. Switch off your radio B. Tell everyone on the frequency C. Ring emergency services D. Give the message priority ANSWER: D - Give the message priority

  15. Amateur Call Signs Australian amateur call signs consist of two letters, followed by one numeral and two, three or four letters. VK6NT VK6KTS VK6FNBX Australian call signs normally commence with the letters ‘VK’. This is an international allocation to Australia. Other allocations which may be issued to Aust amateurs are ‘VI and ‘AX’. These are only issued for special events on a temporary basis. p 58, 69-70

  16. Amateur Call Signs The numeral identifies the State or Territory in which the amateur is licensed to operate. 1 Australian Capital Territory 2 New south Wales 3 Victoria 4 Queensland 5 South Australia 6 Western Australia 7 Tasmania 8 Northern Territory 9 External Territories 0 Antarctica p 69

  17. Amateur Call Signs The remaining two, three or four letters identify the type of licence held by the operator. Any two letter suffix, or three letter suffix that begin with A, B, C, D, E, F, G, J, K, T, U, W, X, Y & Z indicate an advanced licence. A three letter suffix beginning with H, L, M, N, P & V indicate a Standard licence. Four letter suffix’s are Foundation licences. Three letter suffix beginning with R are repeaters or beacons. p 70

  18. Station Identification The correct identification for an amateur station is the call sign allocated to that station. Station identification must be transmitted at the beginning of a transmission or series of transmissions, at least every ten minutes during the series of transmissions and at the end of the series. A series of transmissions is a continual conversation between two or more stations. Any transmission must be contain station identification. p 57

  19. Q Codes Three letter groups commencing with Q were originally introduced to shorten commonly used phrases particularly when using morse code. They can be used to clarify common messages when conditions are not good or there is a language difficulty. When using voice communications under good conditions it is not necessary to use Q codes. As foundation licensees you are not required to know any of the Q code but do need a knowledge of what it is for. p 81

  20. Secret Messages The transmission of secret coded or encrypted messages is generally not permitted. The only allowable use of coded or encrypted signals is for the control of satellites, repeaters, beacons etc. p 55, 58

  21. Transmission of Entertainment The transmission of any form of entertainment is not permitted. p 55

  22. General Do Not’s An amateur station may not be used for commercial gain. An amateur station may not be used to advertise any item or service. Subjects on which many people have very strong opinions can easily cause heated arguments or can cause individual offence, such as Religion, Politics or Sex should be avoided. p 55

  23. Question 4 An amateur call sign VK2BH would belong to: A. An American licensed technician in Boston B. An Australian licensed amateur in NSW C. A foreign amateur operating in Australia D. An Amateur licensed in Venezuela ANSWER: B - An Australian amateur in NSW

  24. Question 5 All amateur transmissions must include: A. Your name B. Your location C. The power being used D. Your call sign ANSWER: D - Your Call sign

  25. Question 6 An amateur must produce their licence for: A. Anyone who asks for it B. Local government inspectors C. ACMA inspectors D. A person claiming interference from your station ANSWER: C - ACMA inspectors

  26. Radiotelephony Procedures Before looking at the actual procedures, Radio telephony is voice and radiotelegraphy is morse code. Before transmitting always listen to ensure you will not interfere with another transmission already in progress. Remember that you may not be able to hear both sides of another conversation. If in doubt – ask “is the frequency in use”. Avoid using Slang or big words. Remember you never know who listening. p 60, 61

  27. Radiotelephony Procedures Radio telephony is voice and radio telegraphy is morse code. The call in telephony consists of: The call sign of the called station not more than three times; The words “This is”; The call sign of the calling station not more than three times The word “Over” VK6KTS VK6KTS VK6KTS THIS IS VK6BDO VK6BDO VK6BDO OVER p 61

  28. Radio Telephony Procedures A general call to any station may be made by substituting the signal ‘CQ’ for the called station. CQ CQ CQ THIS IS VK6BDO VK6BDO VK6BDO OVER On certain occasions a station may modify a CQ call with an additional designation. CQ DX - calling CQ but wants a distant station. CQ JOTA - Any JOTA station. CQ Contest - Any contest station p 62

  29. Radio Telephony Procedures A reply to a call should consist of: The call sign of the calling station not more than three times; The words “This is” The call sign of the replying station not more than three times The word “Over” VK6BDO VK6BDO VK6BDO THIS IS VK6KTS VK6KTS VK6KTS OVER p 62

  30. Authorised Frequency Bands and Emission Modes Each grade of amateur licence allows the use of different frequency bands and emission modes that may be used on each band. The permitted frequency bands and the modes permitted on that band, for each grade of licence are shown in the LCD. p 59 & LCD

  31. Authorised Frequency Bands and Emission Modes LCD

  32. Permitted Output Power The Amateur Foundation Licence allows a maximum power output of 10 Watts when using Single Side Band (SSB), Amplitude Modulation (AM), Frequency Modulation (FM) or Carrier Wave (CW) emissions. p 58

  33. Type of Equipment Allowed The Foundation Licence only authorises the use of unmodified, commercially manufactured transmitting equipment. p 58

  34. Equipment Must Not Be Modified The Foundation licensee must not make any modifications to any amateur radio transmitting equipment. p 58

  35. Harmful Interference A licensee must not operate a Amateur station if operation causes harmful interference to other radio services. p 54

  36. Restriction of Operation The ACMA has the right to restricted the operation of an amateur station to avoid interference. p 58

  37. Inspection of Amateur Licences ACMA inspectors have the right to require an amateur to produce his/her licence. ACMA inspectors have the right to inspect stations. Inspectors also have the right to confiscate any unlawful equipment or equipment that is capable of being used in an unlawful manner. p 58 & Radio Regs

  38. Notification of Change of Address An amateur licence is issued to operate from a specific address. The ACMA must be notified of any permanent change of address within 7 days of the change. Operation from a temporary address may be continued for up to four months. p 58

  39. Authorised use of Amateur Stations A Foundation licensee may authorise a suitably Qualified person to operate the licensee’s Amateur Station. To operate a station is to control the transmitting equipment. A qualified person is a person who has a certificate of proficiency – not necessarily a licence. You can only authorised a person to your licence level.

  40. Third Party Traffic Do Not Confuse this with Authorised Station Use To operate a station is to control the transmitting equipment. If the licensee is in control of the station anyone may use the microphone and talk. You may also pass messages, within Australia, for a person other than the amateur you are talking to. This is termed “Third Party Traffic” Other countries may not allow this and it is subject to the other countries laws. p 56

  41. Question 7 Foundation licence holders must use equipment that is: A. A specified brand. B. Unmodified transmitting equipment C. Modified transmitting equipment D. Second hand equipment ANSWER: B. Unmodified transmitting equipment

  42. Question 8 A message on behalf of a third party is subject to: A. The number of words B. Where the third party is located C. OK on some frequencies D. Regulatory Conditions ANSWER: D. Regulatory Conditions

  43. Question 9 Specified bands and emissions for amateur operators are contained in: A. Transceiver user manuals B. Amateur radio journals C. Foundation manual D. Licence conditions determination ANSWER: D Licence Conditions Determination

  44. Technical Basics The universe is made up of matter. All matter is made up of atoms Atoms consist of charged particles called protons, neutrons and electrons. Protons have a positive charge; electrons have a negative charge while neutrons are not charged It is these charged particles that give rise to electricity as we understand and apply it in todays electronic applications.

  45. Electricity When two charged bodies are placed close together or connected, like charges will repel and unlike charges will attract each other.    + Attract Repel If unlike charges are connected by a material that will allow the charges to move through it the charges will attempt to equal the number of protons (+) and electrons(-) in each body.

  46. Electricity If a substance allows electrons to move through it easily it is known as a conductor. If it does not allow the passage of electrons it is an insulator. The flow of electrons along a conductor, to equal the charges, is an electric current. p 7, 8

  47. Electric Current An electric current is the ordered flow of electrons along a conductor. Because the electrons are the particles that can move the flow will be from negative to positive. Electric current is represented in formula and circuit diagrams by the symbol ‘I’. Current is measured in Amperes (A). p 10

  48. Electrical Pressure For a current to flow there must be a difference in charge between two points. The difference in charge is known as a Voltage, Potential Difference or Electromotive Force. Voltage uses the symbol ‘V’ or ‘E’ for formula. Voltage is measured in Volts (V). p 10

  49. Resistance For a current to flow there must be a conductor connecting two points of different voltage. Where ever we have movement we have an opposing force. The opposition to current flow is Resistance. Resistance uses the symbol ‘R’ for formula. Resistance is measured in Ohms (Ω). p 10

  50. Ohms Law In a circuit the Voltage (forward pressure), Current (Electron Flow) and Resistance (opposition to flow) are related. Ohms law states “The current in a circuit is directly proportional to the Voltage and inversely proportional to the resistance”. V As a formula - I = V/R Or V = IR I R Or R = V/I NOTE: These formula are on the exam information paper. p 11