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Wrap-up Chapter 4. R ead pages 89 thru 91 Note on page 92: “No Middle Class” _ ___________________________________ Major Features of Judaism Jerusalem: a city of 150,000 which swelled to 500,000 during religious festivals The Temple as rebuilt by Herod the Great from

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wrap up chapter 4

Wrap-up Chapter 4

Read pages 89 thru 91

Note on page 92: “No Middle Class”

____________________________________

Major Features of Judaism

Jerusalem: a city of 150,000 which swelled to

500,000 during religious festivals

The Temple as rebuilt by Herod the Great from

15 years before Jesus’ birth to 35 years

after His death

A place of offerings, prayer & sacrifice

A den of thieves

slide2

Read page 96

  • Note on page 96 picture of a typical synagogue
  • The synagogue became the center of Jewish worship after the Temple in Jerusalem was destroyed
  • Synagogues in ancient times existed in every village
  • Then, as now, they were open 3 times daily for prayer plus the day of Sabbath
  • Read “Central Religious Practices” beginning on page 97 and ending on page 100 before the section entitled “Key Religious-Political Groups and Persons”
key religious political groups and persons
Key Religious-Political Groups and Persons
  • The Priestly Caste:
    • Started out being because a person was from a certain tribe to being selected by the Jewish senate (The Great Sanhedrin) based on wealth or social class
  • The High Priest:
    • His election was based on politics and he was as much a politician as the religious leader of his people
  • Sadducees:
    • Upper class, liberal in politics, conservative in religion, accepted only the Torah, rejected notion of resurrection, disliked by common people, died out after 70 CE
key religious political groups and persons continued
Key Religious-Political Groups and Persons continued
  • Pharisees:
    • More liberal in religious matters than the Sadducees but more politically conservative and would not deal with the Romans, accepted more books than just the five of the Torah, committed to the Law while Sadducees were only committed to the Temple allowed them to survive after 70 CE, today’s Judaism is descended from the Pharisees’ beliefs, respected b the common people
  • Do not stereotype Pharisees based on Gospels:
    • Did not participate in trail of Jesus, were criticized by Jesus for being overly legalistic, but Gospels may also reflect early church’s problems with the Pharisees
key r eligious political groups and persons continued
Key Religious-Political Groups and Persons continued
  • Zealots:
    • Maintained that Jewish independence could only be achieved through a military overthrow of the Romans, some may have initially been attracted by Jesus but later rejected Him because of His position of non-violence
  • Tax Collectors:
    • Jews were taxed by Romans and their own priests amounting to 40% of their income, Romans hired Jewish agents to collect a certain quota of taxes and above that quota they were allowed to keep any “extra” money they collected; also called “publicans,” hated by the common people
key religious political groups and persons continued1
Key Religious-Political Groups and Persons continued
  • The Great Sanhedrin:
    • Means “assembly” or “senate,” governing body of Jews, 70 members plus president, voted on laws and had its own police force, controlled everything to do with religion, Pharisees and Sadducees were both represented but Sadducees wielded the real power, Sanhedrin tried Jesus but without the Pharisees
  • Scribes:
    • Both writers and jurists, interpreters of the Law, could act as a court and pass judgment on those who broke the Law, a scribe who taught was called a “rabbi” meaning master or teacher, they taught in synagogues, only some were also Pharisees, organized the Old Testament as we know it today