History of the United States of America 1917-1932
Technological Advancements (1917-1932) • Many of the technological advancements occured as a result of the beginning of World War I. • World War I caused countries to compete on who had the biggest and baddest weapon out their. For the most part having the biggest weapon equaled all the power but in another sense it allowed some countries to become targets because they had too much weaponry. • Some of the first advancements before 1917 and well into the 1920's were the introductions of new war weapons and war strategic plans. • Trench Warfare allowed for the enemy to hide in tunnels to avoid being shot by bullets and flying shrapnel metals. • Explosive Shells or Grenades were one of the more important inventions during the war because it had the potential to kill or wound many people at one time. The explosion from the shell caused far away injuries due to flying shrapnel. • The Tank changed the way the war was fought, the first ones were slow but as technology progressed the were able built tougher and were stronger. • Submarines were an important ally in the war because they protected countries against coastal attacks.
Technological Advancements (1917-1932) • The invention of Henry Ford's first consumer automobile The Model T, by 1927 more than 15 million were sold and by the end of the decade there was on average one car per American Family. Workers could live farther from home now and families had more recreational time with each other. • The invention of the car lead the need for more roads, in 1924 the FRA (Federal Road Association) funded the building of public roads all over America. • The first radio broadcast in 1922, was a big invention because it allowed people a new way for people to interact with each other as well. More than 20 different radio stations became available after the first broadcast.
Technological Advancements (1917-1932) • Although the Airplane was invented in the early 1900', it it wasn't seen as a stable invention. It gained popularity after it was thought of as a way to transport mail faster. This drastically changed the need for airplanes around the world, it was not far from that time that airplanes were used to transport people from far away places for a small charge. This began the first commericialized flights. • Recreation influenced family movie times, in 1922, the "Jazz Singer" debuted as being the first movie that was recorded with sound. The film industry progressed more just four years later,with the introduction of Technicolor, in which pictures and flimg were now in color, so viewers were able to get the full movie experience by having both sound and music.
Technological Advancements (1917-1932) • The introduction of the assembly line made manufacutring easier while at the same time decreasing the price of goods.
America Economically (1917-1932) The European allies ended the war in debt to the US. The United States demanded Gold and dollars because they feared the depreciation and collapse of foreign currency which the Allies had to borrow, this places them in greater debt. The years 1918-1919 caused a recession due to the end of the wartime production and influx of labour, the unemployment rate rose to 20%. There was a brief depression in the years 1920-1921. Between 1920-1929 Presidents Harding and Coolidge worked to reduce national debt, reduce taxes, reduce immigration, protect farming interests. They also worked to raise the tariff which helped reduce the federal debt by a third.During the period between 1925-1929, world trade and speculative investment increased as a result of better economic times; the US led this movement. The Roaring Twenties saw the rise of mass production with the increase in the work place and rise of such new technological advances such as the automobile industry. An increase in consumer spending was due to the transfer from a wartime economy to a peacetime economy as well as the Federal Reserve expanding credit and favoring big banks, and the money supply increasing by 60% while interest rates were below market. Over-extension of credit led to the Stock Market Crash of 1929 leading to the Great Depression; unemployment rose to 23.6%
American Politics (1917-1932) • American Presidents during this time • Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921) • Urged the US to join the League of Nations • Created the New Freedom Program, which stimulated competition. • Warren G Harding (1921-1923) • Jailed for Teapot Dome Scandal • Naval Disarmament at Washington Naval Conference • Calvin Coolidge (1923-1929) • Often said he was a "president that was FOR the people. • Kellogg-Briand Pact allowed countries over the world to renounce war. • Herbert Hoover (1929-1933) • Indian Civilization Act -Gave indians citizenship to the United States
American Politics(1917-1932)Scandals • Harding scandals • Charles Forbes went to jail for fraud and bribery in connection with government contracts. He took millions of dollars from the Veteran's Bureau. • Harry Daugherty was implicated for accepting bribes. • The Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall leased government land to the oil companies (Teapot Dome Scandal) and was convicted of accepting a bribe.The Naval strategic oil reserve at Elk Hills, also known as "Teapot Dome" was taken out of the Navy's control and placed in the hands of the Department of the Interior, which leased the land to oil companies. There were several Cabinet members who received huge payments as bribes. Daugherty, Denky, and Fall were forced to resign because of the investigation. • Harry Sinclair leased government land to the oil companies and was forced to resign due to the investigation, same as Fall. He was acquitted on the bribery charges.
American Politics (1917-1932) • In 1919, the Communist Party was gaining strength in the U.S. This was the period known as the Red Scare. In January 1920, Palmer raids in 33 cities broke out. They went into meeting halls and homes without warrants, and 4,000 suspected Communists were jailed and some were deported. • The Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928 also known as the "Pact of Paris" or "Treaty for the Renunciation of War" made war illegal as a tool of national policy, allowing only defensive war. This Treaty was usually dismissed as pointless.
American Intellectuals (1917-1932) • Theodore Dreiser was an American writer during the Naturalism movement. He wrote a book entitled An American Tragedy in 1925. In his book he criticized repressive and hypocritical society. • T.S. Elliot was one of the most influential poets of this era. He wrote "The Waste Land" in 1922, and it contrasts the spiritual bankruptcy of modern Europe with the values and unity of the past. This was considered the foundation of modernist poetry. • Francis "Scottie" Fitzgerald was an influential journalist and novelist who inspired many other literary figures of the time. His novels and stories portrayed the excitement and uproar of the Jazz Age. His novel The Great Gatsby chronicle New York City post-WWI and during the rise of the era of prohibition and jazz.
America Socially (1917-1932) • The United States didn't experience as much hardship as Europe did after the First World War. • As Europe was struggling to recover from the first World War, the U.S. was going through the period of the "Roaring Twenties." • Dawes Plan - Proposed by the American, Charles Dawes, the Dawes Plan lowered the annual amount of reparations to be paid by Germany to France and Britain, and loaned Germany a sizable amount of money so that it could pay on time. • There was a strike in September of 1919. The Boston police and 350,000 steel workers went on strike. This led to labor unions being damaged. • The Ku Klux Klan arose in the 1920's.The Ku Klux Klan was founded by William Simmons in Georgia to fight the blacks, Jews, and Catholics in the U.S. In the 1920's, the number of member grew dramatically, especially in the Midwest. In 1924, the had 3 million members, but its reputation for violence declined rapidly by 1929. • 1920 saw the year that women were given the right to vote. Women started wearing short skirts, bobbed hair, and had more sexual freedom. They stopped taking traditional female roles and had jobs usually reserved for men.They were known as Flappers.
America Socially(1917-1932) • The 1920's saw the popularity of Jazz Music originating from African-Americans in the south thanks to the phenomenon of the radio. Jazz music gave way to a new form of dancing and the acceptance of minorities in public places such as night-clubs and restaurants. • Homosexuals also an increase of acceptance in society. Gay clubs were openly operated and homosexuality were portrayed in the film industry but such major motion pictures as The Drag and actors such as William Haines. • Hollywood changed entertainment in America with the popularity of "talkies". Talkies brought the actual voices of actors into theaters and ended the era of silent films, making the moviemaking business more profitable. This led to actors and actresses dominating American pop culture.
America Religiously (1917-1932) • There was a Fundamentalists movement in Protestantism. The movement tried to preserve the basic ideas of Christianity. The movement was a reaction to the modern society. They affirmed fundamental Christian beliefs, which were the idea that the bible did not contain any error, Sola Scriptura(the bible as God's written word is self-authentic), Jesus was given birth by a virgin, the doctrine of substitutionary atonement, the bodily resurrection of Jesus, and the imminent personal return of Jesus.
Bibliography • "The Great Depression (1920-1940)." Spark Notes: History Guide. 4 Jan. 2009 http://www.sparknotes.com/history/american/depression/summary.html. • Noble, Matt. "Economics During the Inter-War Years (1919-1938)." The Interwar Years. 3 Jan. 2009 http://www.sparknotes.com/history/european/interwaryears. • "Roaring Twenties." Travel & History. 4 Jan. 2009 <http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1564.html>. • Sage, Henry J. "The Roaring Twenties." An American Experience. 11 Oct. 2006. North Virginia Community College. 2 Jan. 2009 <www.sagehistory.net>. • "Tank." First World War. 4 Jan. 2009 <http://www.schoolshistory.org.uk/tank.htm>.
Team Members Joanna Fernandez Alexandria Prude Lania West Robert Slay