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CSCI 578 Software Architectures

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  1. CSCI 578Software Architectures Exam #2 Review

  2. Materials you are responsible for • Chapters 9-17 in the text book • Also Chapter 8 on Architectural Analysis since we didn’t cover this in the first exam • All lecture material from Implementation Architectures through People, Roles and Teams (Week 15) • Homework #3 and Course Project • Dan Crichton’s lecture, T. S. Mohan’s lecture

  3. Exam • Closed book, closed note • Format • Write in answers • No multiple choice

  4. Material Review • Implementing Architectures • Mapping problem of design decisions to implementation artifacts (code, executables, etc.) • Common Element Mapping • Understand how components, connectors, interfaces, configurations are reified in the actual system implementation • One way versus Round-trip Mapping • Architectural Implementation Frameworks • a piece of software that acts as a bridge between a particular architectural style and a set of implementation technologies

  5. Material Review • Architectural implementation framework examples • stdio, java.io, iostream => pipe and filter • Evaluating architectural implementation frameworks • Platform support, fidelity, matching assumptions, efficiency, size, cost, ease of use, reliability, robustness, availability of source code, portability, long-term maintainability and support • Middleware • Represents the implementation-level reification of software connectors • New Frameworks • Avoid constructing these unless you have to!


  6. Material Review • Implementation Techniques • Detailed description of pipe and filter Lunar Lander

  7. Material Review • Applied Architectures • 8 limitations (“fallacies”) of distributed computing (Deutsch & Gosling) • The network is reliable • Latency is zero • Bandwidth is infinite • The network is secure • Topology doesn’t change • There is one administrator • Transport cost is zero • The network is homogeneous

  8. Material Review • Applied Architectures • REST/WWW • Architectural principles • Resources, resources include metadata + bits, context free communication (stateless), small set of well defined methods, representation metadata for caching, presence of intermediaries to distributed computation/workload • Akami • Caching of content and localized delivery architecture • Google MapReduce/GFS • Distribution of computation/parallelization and data over a commodity cluster of machines

  9. Material Review • Applied Architectures • Grid Protocol Architecture (Globus) • P2P Architectures • Napster, Gnutella • Skype • Bittorrent • Overall takeaways • A great architecture is the ticket to runaway success • A great architecture reflects deep understanding of the problem domain • A great architecture probably combines aspects of several simpler architectures • Develop a new architectural style with great care and caution. Most likely you don’t need a new style.

  10. Material Review • Designing for Non-Functional Properties (NFPs) • A software system’s non-functional property (NFP) is a constraint on the manner in which the system implements and delivers its functionality • Example NFPs • Efficiency • Complexity • Scalability • Heterogeneity • Adaptability • Dependability

  11. Material Review • Ascertain the role of software architecture in ensuring various NFPs • At the level of major architectural building blocks • Components • Connectors • Configurations • As embodied in architectural style-level design guidelines • Efficiency, Complexity, Scalability, Heterogeneity, Adaptability, Dependability

  12. Material Review • Security and Trust • “The protection afforded to an automated information system in order to attain the applicable objectives of preserving the integrity, availability and confidentiality of information system resources (includes hardware, software, firmware, information/data, and telecommunications).” • National Institute of Standards and Technology • Design Principles • Least Privilege: give each component only the privileges it requires • Fail-safe Defaults: deny access if explicit permission is absent • Economy of Mechanism: adopt simple security mechanisms • Complete Mediation: ensure every access is permitted • Design: do not rely on secrecy for security

  13. Material Review • Security and Trust • Design Principles • Separation of Privilege: introduce multiple parties to avoid exploitation of privileges • Least Common Mechanism: limit critical resource sharing to only a few mechanisms • Psychological Acceptability: make security mechanisms usable • Defense in Depth: have multiple layers of countermeasures

  14. Material Review • Decentralized • No centralized authority to coordinate and control entities • Independent peers, with possibly conflicting goals, interact with each other and make local autonomous decisions • Presence of malicious peers in open decentralized applications • Need for measures to protect peers against malicious attacks

  15. Material Review • Some Threats of Decentralization • Impersonation: Mallory says she is Bob to Alice • Fraudulent Actions: Mallory doesn’t complete transactions • Misrepresenting Trust: Mallory tells everyone Bob is evil • Collusion: Mallory and Eve tell everyone Bob is evil • Addition of Unknowns: Alice has never met Bob

  16. Carol Bob Alice Decentralized Auctioning Mallory (malicious) Decentralized Auctioning • Open decentralized application • Independent buyers/sellers • Potentially malicious participants • Need to counter threats Marvin (malicious)

  17. Impersonation Bob Alice Bob is reliable and everyone has a good opinion about Bob “I am Bob” Mallory (malicious)

  18. Fraudulent Actions Alice pays for the items Marvin does not ship the items Marvin “seller” (malicious) Alice “buyer”

  19. Misrepresentation Bob Alice Bob is reliable and everyone has a good opinion about Bob “Bob is unreliable” Mallory (malicious)

  20. Collusion Bob Alice Bob is reliable and everyone has a good opinion about Bob “Bob is unreliable” Marvin (malicious) Mallory (malicious)

  21. Addition of Unknowns Carol (new entrant in the system) Carol is new and does not know Alice; she is not sure whether to interact with Alice Bob has no information about Carol; he is not sure whether to interact with Carol Alice Bob

  22. Multicast Handler HTTP Sender Custom Protocols Multicast Manager Communication Layer Communication Manager Signature Manager Information Layer Internal Information External Information Credential Manager Key Manager Trust Manager Trust Layer Application Trust Rules A P P L I C A T I O N Material Review • PACE Architecture

  23. Material Review • Deployment and Mobility • Deployment is the process of placement of a system’s software components on its hardware hosts • Changing the deployment of a component during runtime is called migration or redeployment • Migration or redeployment is a type of software system mobility • Mobility entails a superset of deployment issues

  24. Material Review • 4 Major Deployment Activities • Planning • Modeling • Analysis • Implementation

  25. Material Review • Deployment Implementation • Release • Install • Activate • Deactivate • Update • Adapt • Reconfigure • De-install or remove • De-release or retire

  26. Material Review • Code Mobility Paradigms • Remote evaluation • Re-deploy needed component at runtime from a source host to a destination host • Install component on the destination host • Code-on-demand • Same as remote evaluation, but roles of target and destination hosts are reversed • Mobile agent • Migration of a stateful software component that needs some remote resources to complete its task

  27. Material Review • Definition. Reference architecture is the set of principal design decisions that are simultaneously applicable to multiple related systems, typically within an application domain, with explicitly defined points of variation. • Reference architectures are still architectures (since they are also sets of principal design decisions) • Distinguished by the presence of explicit points of variation (explicitly “unmade” decisions)

  28. Material Review • DSSA Definition (Hayes-Roth) • Definition: A domain-specific software architecture (DSSA) comprises: • a reference architecture, which describes a general computational framework for a significant domain of applications; • a component library, which contains reusable chunks of domain expertise; and • an application configuration method for selecting and configuring components within the architecture to meet particular application requirements. (“variation points”)

  29. Material Review • DSSE and Product Line Architectures • Product Lines • A set of related products that have substantial commonality

  30. Material Review • People, Roles and Teams • Architect desired skills • Software development expertise • Domain expertise • Communicator • Strategist • Consultant • Leader • Technologist • Cost estimator • Cheerleader • Politician • Salesperson

  31. Material Review • Pitfalls of the architecture team • Imbalance of skills • Lack of software development experience • Lack of domain expertise • Lack of authority • Team acts as committee • Life in ivory tower • Confusing tools/techniques/methodologies with architectures • Procrastination