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Praise Chapel Puget Sound. A Walk Through the Bible With Bro. Bill Parker Sr. Lesson 10 Post - Exile History Ezra, Nehemiah & Esther. The Post-Exile Period. The Decree of Cyrus Isaiah’s Letter Ezra The Mixed Multitudes Nehemiah The Decree for Jerusalem Esther The Drama [Acrostics]

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a walk through the bible with bro bill parker sr

Praise Chapel Puget Sound

A Walk Through the BibleWith Bro. Bill Parker Sr.

Lesson 10

Post - Exile History

Ezra, Nehemiah & Esther

the post exile period
The Post-Exile Period
  • The Decree of Cyrus
    • Isaiah’s Letter
  • Ezra
    • The Mixed Multitudes
  • Nehemiah
    • The Decree for Jerusalem
  • Esther
    • The Drama
    • [Acrostics]
  • Inter-testament Period
the panorama of history

Roman E

Greek Empire

Persian Empire





The Nation Israel

The Diaspora



Rest of OT


400 yrs

The Panorama of History


Israel Restored

Fall of Man

The Exodus






6,000 Years?


Persian Empire

Decree of



1st Siege

Decree of


2nd Siege

3rd Siege

Triggers the 70 Weeks of Daniel

“Servitude of the Nation”

“Desolations of Jerusalem”



2nd Chronicles







cyrus ii the great
Cyrus II (“The Great”)
  • Established the Medo-Persian Empire
    • Cyrus’ father: Cambyses I (600-559 BC), was king of Anshan (E. Elam)
    • Cyrus’ mother: Mandane, a daughter of Astyages, king of Media
  • 550 BC: Attacked his father-in-law, the corrupt Astyages;
    • Captured Ecbatana without a battle
  • Welded the Medes and Persians into a unified nation that continued for two centuries
the conquest of babylon
The Conquest of Babylon
  • October 12, 539 BC, Cyrus’ general captured Babylon without a battle.
  • The Persians diverted the River Euphrates into a canal upriver so that the water level dropped "to the height of the middle of a man's thigh," which thus rendered the flood defenses useless and enabled the invaders to march through the riverbed to enter by night. Herodotus
the stele of cyrus
The Stele of Cyrus


"...without any battle, he entered the town, sparing any calamity; ... I returned to sacred cities on the other side of the Tigris, the sanctuaries of which have been ruins for a long time... and established for them permanent sanctuaries.

I also gathered all their former inhabitants and returned to them their habitations."

British Museum in London.

the letter to cyrus
The Letter to Cyrus
  • When Cyrus made his grand entrance Daniel presented him with an ancient scroll of Isaiah, which contained a personal letter addressing him by name.Josephus, Antiquities, XI, I, 2
  • Isaiah had died 150 years before Cyrus was born!
letter to cyrus
Letter to Cyrus

That saith to the deep, Be dry, and I will dry up thy rivers:

That saith of Cyrus, He is my shepherd, and shall perform all my pleasure: even saying to Jerusalem, Thou shalt be built; and to the temple, Thy foundation shall be laid.Isaiah 44:27, 28

Thus saith the LORD to his anointed, to Cyrus, whose right hand I have holden, to subdue nations before him; and I will loose the loins of kings, to open before him the two leaved gates; and the gates shall not be shut;Isaiah 45:1

letter to cyrus1
Letter to Cyrus

I will go before thee, and make the crooked places straight: I will break in pieces the gates of brass, and cut in sunder the bars of iron:

And I will give thee the treasures of darkness, and hidden riches of secret places, that thou mayest know that I, the LORD, which call thee by thy name, am the God of Israel.

For Jacob my servant's sake, and Israel mine elect, I have even called thee by thy name: I have surnamed thee, though thou hast not known me.

I am the LORD, and there is none else, there is no God beside me: I girded thee, though thou hast not known me:Isaiah 45:2-5

cyrus response
Cyrus’ Response
  • Cyrus was duly impressed.
  • He freed the captives and even gave them incentives to return to their homeland and rebuild their temple.
cyrus proclamation
Cyrus’ Proclamation

Thus saith Cyrus king of Persia,

“The LORD God of heaven hath given me all the kingdoms of the earth; and he hath charged me to build him an house at Jerusalem, which is in Judah. Who is there among you of all his people? his God be with him, and let him go up to Jerusalem, which is in Judah, and build the house of the LORD God of Israel, (he is the God,) which is in Jerusalem.” Ezra 1:2, 3

  • Probable author of 1 & 2 Chronicles also
    • 1 & 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah = 1 book
  • Credited with establishing the “canon”
  • Return of the Remnant
    • 536 BC: 49,697 under Zerubbabel
    • 456 BC: (80 years later) under Ezra
kings of persia
Kings of Persia
  • Cyrus the Great (Mede/Persian) Ezra 1, Isaiah 45
  • Cambyses Ahasuerus of Ezra 4
  • Gaumata Artaxerxes of Ezra 4
  • Darius I “Hystaspis” Ezra 5, 6
  • Xerxes IAhasuerus of Esther
  • Artaxerxes I (“Longimanus”)Nehemiah 2
  • Xerxes II
  • Darius II “Nothus” Nehemiah 12
  • Artaxerxes II “Mnemon”
  • Artaxerxes III “Ochus”
  • Darius III “Codomanus” Nehemiah 12
xerxes i ahasuerus
Xerxes I (Ahasuerus)
  • Khshayarsha
        • Greek translation: Xerxes
        • Hebrew: Akhashverosh
        • English: Ahasuerus
  • Passionate extremes
    • Gigantic ideas, and imperious temper
  • Canal through Isthmus of Athos
  • Bridge over the Hellespont
  • The Ahasuerus of Esther
the drama
The Drama
  • Lavish Royal Banquet
    • Queen Vashti refuses to immodestly display herself
    • Forfeits her royal diadem
  • Esther, orphaned Jewish girl, raised by her cousin Mordecai, selected as replacement
  • Mordecai thwarts a plot against the king
  • David declined to take vengeance on Shimei 2 Sam 16:5-13; 19:16-23
  • Mordecai was a descendant of Shimei, of the House of Kish, the father of King Saul, a product of David’s grace
  • He will ultimately confront Haman, the result of Saul’s failure to follow God’s instructions
  • He refuses to do obeisance to Haman…
the flesh vs the spirit
The Flesh vs. The Spirit
  • Jacob and Esau, struggling since the womb Gen 25:21-34
  • Amalek descended from Esau Gen 36:12
  • Amalek fought with Israel at Rephidim Exo 17:8-16
  • Doom foretold
    • Balaam Num 24:20
    • Moses Deut 25:17-19
  • Saul’s Failure
    • Instructed to destroy them all 1 Sam 15:1-3
    • Spared Agag, King of Amalekites
    • Kingdom taken from Saul 1 Sam 15:7-28
  • Haman was a descendant of Agag Est 3:1
the deadly threat
The Deadly Threat
  • Haman succeeds in getting the king to order the extermination of all the Jews
  • Mordecai prevails upon Esther to intercede
    • “Thou art come for such a time as this”
    • “If I perish, I perish.”
  • She asks for 3 days of fasting and prayer
the critical moment
The Critical Moment
  • Esther enters the inner court
    • The king extends his scepter
  • She invites the king and Haman to a banquet
  • She demurs: she invites them to a subsequent banquet…
what a day brings
What a day brings…
  • A gloating Haman prepares a gallows
  • A sleepless king reads the chronicles
    • Mordecai was never rewarded for his deed
  • Haman unknowingly specifies Mordecai’s reward
the 2 nd banquet
The 2nd Banquet
  • Esther asks for her life to be spared
  • An astonished king ponders Haman’s deceits
  • Haman falls on Esther’s couch to plead
  • The king, returning, misconstrues the move and orders Haman hanged…
    • …on the very “gallows” he built for Mordecai
the denoument
The Denoument
  • Haman’s estate escheat to the crown
    • Set under Mordecai’s supervision
  • A second decree authorizes the Jews to defend themselves
    • 127 provinces, from India to Ethiopia
    • Magistrates also assist them…
  • Celebrated as The Feast of Purim
the ten sons of haman
The Ten Sons of Haman

ParshandathaCurious Self busy-body

DalphonWeeping Self self-pity

AspathaAssembled Self self-mobilized; self-sufficiency

PorathaGenerous Self spend-thriftiness; self-indulgence

AdaliaWeak Self self-consciousness; inferiority

AridathaStrong Self assertiveness; insists upon one’s way

ParmashtaPreeminent Self ambition; desire for preeminence

ArisaiBold Self imprudence

AridaiDignified Self pride; haughtiness; sense of superiority

VaizathaPure Self worst of all: self-righteousness

the book of esther
The Book of Esther
  • Name of God does not appear?
  • Esther = “Something Hidden”
  • Hidden Codes:

5 Acrostics

3 Equidistant Letter Sequences

esther 1 20
Esther 1:20

WnT.yI ~yviN"h;-lk'w> ayh



Initial letters: because the event was initial

Backwards: God was turning back the counsels of man.

esther 5 4
Esther 5:4

~AYh; !m'h'w> %l,M,h; aAby"



Initial letters: God was initiating the action;

Forward: God was ruling and causing Esther to act.

esther 5 13
Esther 5:13

yli hA,v WNn<yae hz<



Final letters: Haman’s end was approaching;

Backwards: God was overruling Haman’s gladness

and turning back Haman’s counsel.

esther 7 7
Esther 7:7

h['r'h' wyl'ae ht'l.k'-yKi



Final: Haman’s end had come;

Forward: God was ruling and bringing about the

end He had determined.

1) Initial

2) Initial

3) Final

4) Final

Initial: facts are initial

Final: facts are final.

1) Backward

2) Forward

3) Backward

4) Forward

Backward: Gentiles

Forward: Israelites


1) Words spoken concerninga queen;

2) Words spoken bya queen;

3) Words spoken byHaman;

4) Words concerningHaman.

esther 7 5
Esther 7:5

Then the king Ahasuerus answered and said unto Esther the queen,

“Who is he, and where is he, that durst presume in his heart to do so?”

`!Ke tAf[]l; ABli Aal'm.-rv,a] aWh hz<-yaew> hz< aWh ymi


= “I AM”

esther 1 3
Esther 1:3

An Equidistant Letter Sequence, interval of 8.

lyxe wyd'b'[]w: wyr'f'-lk'l. hT,v.mi hf'[' Akl.m'l. vAlv' tn:v.Bi


Meshiach, Messiah

esther 4 7
Esther 4:7

An Equidistant Letter Sequence, interval of 8.

`rTes.a, wyl'[' ht'W>ci-rv,a] lkoK. f[;Y:w: yk'D\r>m' rbo[]Y:w:


Yeshua, Jesus

esther 4 2
Esther 4:2

An Equidistant Letter Sequence, interval of 7:

`qf' vWbl.Bi %l,M,h r[;v;-la, aAbl' !yae yKi %l,M,h;-r[;v; ynEp.li d[; aAbY"w:

[;yGIm; Atd'w> %l,M,h;-rb;D> rv,a] ~Aqm. hn"ydIm.W hn"ydIm.-lk'b.W


El Shaddai, The Almighty

esther 3 11 12
Esther 3:11-12

An Equidistant Letter Sequence, interval of 6:

AB tAf[]l; ~['h'w> %l' !Wtn" @s,K,h; !m'h'l. %l,M,h; rm,aYOw:

`^yn<y[eB. bAJK;

~Ay rf'[' hv'Alv.Bi !AvarIh' vd,xoB; %l,M,h; yrep.so War>Q'YIw:

xyr !jvw !mh

haman v’satan ray’yach

“Haman and Satan stink.”

the panorama of history1



Roman Empire

Greek Empire

Persian Empire



The Nation Israel

The Diaspora



Rest of OT


400 yrs

The Panorama of History


Israel Restored

Fall of Man

The Exodus






6,000 Years?

the greek empire
The Greek Empire
  • Alexander conquers the Persians 332 BC
  • Succeeded by his 4 generals:
    • Cassander Macedonia & Greece
    • Lysimacus Thrace, Bithynia, most of Asia Minor
    • Ptolemy Egypt, Cyrene, Arabia

Sponsored the Septuagint Translation: LXX270 BC

    • Seleucus Syria and East to India

Antiochus Epiphanes (The “Little Horn”) Dan 8

antiochus iv epiphanes 175 164 bc
Antiochus IV (“Epiphanes”)175-164 BC
  • Made Torah reading punishable by death
  • Slaughtered a sow on the Altar
  • Erected an idol to Zeus in the Holy of Holies
    • “The Abomination of Desolation” Matt 24:15
  • The Macabbean Revolt
    • 3 years: threw off the yoke of Seleucid Empire
    • Rededicated the Temple: 25th of Kislev, 165 BC
      • Celebrated as ChannukahJohn 10:22
the roman empire phase i
The Roman Empire, Phase I

63 BC Pompey conquers Judea

Herod Antipater, an Edomite, appointed ruler

40 BC Parthians conquer Judea

37 BC Romans regain Judea Herod the Great succeeds Antipater

31 BC Battle of Actium

~2 BC? Registration and Census ordered

7 AD Caponius appointed Procurator Removed legal powers of Sanhedrin

“Woe unto us for the scepter has departed from Judah and the Messiah has not come!” Babylonian Talmud

next lesson
Next Lesson
  • Major Prophets
    • Isaiah
    • Jeremiah


    • Ezekiel
    • Daniel