POLITICS AND THE WARS OR RELIGION IN THE 16TH CENTURY • By mid 16th it was militant Catholicism v. militant Calvinism -> spread their word and defeat the other side • This was a religious/spiritual struggle -> leads to wars of religion • Economic, social, and political factors are involved in these conflicts
THE FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION1562-1598 • HUGUENOTS • ULTRA-CATHOLICS = the Guise • Towns and nobles joined the Huguenots -> to resist the monarchy • POLITIQUES • Massacre at Vassy • St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre • Henry of Navarre • The Holy League and Henry of Guise • King Henry III • The War of the Three Henries 1588-1589 • Henry of Navarre crowned King Henry IV -> converts to Catholicism “Paris is worth a Mass” Henry VI issues EDICT OF NANTES 1598 = legal toleration for Hugs/Prots
PHILIP II AND THE CAUSE OF MILITANT CATHOLICISM • King Philip II of Spain (1556-1598) • Son and heir of Charles V • Militant Catholic • Reigns during the “siglod’oro”/golden age of Spain • Controlled Spain, Netherlands, S. Italy, New World colonies • Make Spain the dominant power in Europe • Financed by new world gold and silver -> leads to inflation -> taxes and borrowing -> repudiation of debt -> decline of Spain after Philip • Lead struggle against the Muslim Ottoman Turks -> Battle of Lepanto 1571 • Lead crusade against Protestantism • The Dutch Revolt • Struggle with Queen Elizabeth of England
THE REVOLT OF THE NETHERLANDS • The Spanish Netherlands 1. 2. 3. Rebellion against Philip II 1. 2.
THE DUTCH REVOLT • Begins in 1566 • The Duke of Alva -> sent by Philip II to crush the revolt with an army of ten thousand • The Council of Blood -> organizes a reign over terror against protestants • William the Silent -> leader of the Dutch protestants • Duke of Parma -> new leader sent by Philip and splits the south and the north • Union of Arras 1579 -> southern provinces remain loyal to Spain • Union of Utrecht -> protestant union of the 7 northern provinces • The United Provinces -> the Dutch Republic 1648
THE ENGLAND OF ELIZABETH • Mary dies in 1558 • Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603) • Lays foundations for world power • Period of cultural renaissance in England • Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn • Elizabeth’s religious views • Protestant • Moderation and compromise
QUEEN ELIZABETH I • THE ELIZABETHAN SETTLEMENT • MARY, QUEEN OF SCOTS • PURITANS • GOVERNMENT AND FOREIGN POLICY • FRANCIS DRAKE AND THE SEA DOGS • ELIZABETH AND THE DUTCH REVOLT • ELIZABETH v. PHILIP II • THE SPANISH ARMADA • “The Golden Speech”