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How To Write A Research Paper. Active vs. Passive Voice. In active voice…… the subject of the sentence performs the action expressed in the verb. The dog bit the boy. In passive voice……. the subject is acted upon; he or she receives the action expressed by the verb.

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active vs passive voice
Active vs. Passive Voice

In active voice……

the subject of the sentence performs the action expressed in the verb.

The dogbit the boy.

slide3

In passive voice…….

the subject is acted upon; he or she receives the action expressed by the verb.

The boywas bitten by the dog.

passive voice
Passive Voice
  • The passive voice can create awkward sentences.
  • It is more readily accepted in scientific writing.
  • The verb phrase will always include a form of be, such as am, is, was, were, are, or been, but presence of a be-verb does not necessarily mean the sentence is in passive voice.
    • I was riding the bicycle.
  • may include a "by the..." phrase after the verb
    • The milk was bought by the man.
research paper criteria
Research Paper Criteria
  • Topic must be approved by Mrs. Mills.
  • You must use at least 5 credible sources. You may choose from the following: books, newspapers, magazines, articles from data bases, sources from reliable web sites (no blogs, Wikipedia, etc.).
  • Final paper must use correct MLA format and documentation within paper as well as adhere to MLA format in your Works Cited page.
  • The thesis statement must be clearly written.
research paper criteria1
Research Paper Criteria
  • The content of your paper should be clearly organized, relevant to the selected topic and thesis statement, and written in a manner that demonstrates varied language use and sentence structure(correct spelling, grammar, verb tenses, etc.).
  • The paper must be typed and double-spaced using Times New Roman font size 12.
  • The final version of your paper must be a minimum of 3 pages in length (not including your Works Cited page). It should not exceed 5 pages.
slide7

Your Name

Mrs. Mills

English 4

Date Due

Title

research paper criteria2
Research Paper Criteria
  • 1” margins on each side
  • Create a header in the upper right hand corner with your last name and consecutive page numbers (omit on page 1)
types of research papers
Types of Research Papers
  • Argumentative
  • Analytical
argumentative
Argumentative
  • The writer clearly introduces the topic and informs his audience exactly which stance he intends to take in his thesis statement:
    • Although it has been proven that cigarette smoking may lead to health problems in the smoker, the social acceptance of smoking in public places demonstrates that many still do not consider secondhand smoke as dangerous to one's health as firsthand smoke.
analytical
Analytical
  • Usually begins with the writer asking a question on which he has taken no stance. For example, perhaps one is interested in the Old English poem Beowulf and wants to offer a fresh reading of the poem to the academic community:
    • Though Beowulf is often read as a poem that recounts the heroism and supernatural exploits of the protagonist Beowulf, it may also be read as a poem that served as an exemplum for tenth- and eleventh-century communities.
choosing your topic
Choosing Your Topic
  • Select a topic that interests you
  • Pick something you want to know more about
  • Choose something you can easily research
possible topics
Possible Topics
  • artificial intelligence
  • cell phone use (dangers of…)
  • cloning
  • e-toys replacing human companionship
  • genetic testing during pregnancy
  • plastic surgery: creating the perfect person
  • space exploration: beneficial or an unnecessary government investment?
  • stem cell research
narrowing your topic
Narrowing Your Topic

Literature of

Weapons used in

World War I

History of

Impact of

America’s role in

Causes of

more to consider
More to consider…
  • Consider your audience
    • Formal writing
    • Third-person narration
  • Consider your purpose
    • Argumentative or analytical
research
Research
  • When you find a good source you want to use, make sure you:
    • Print the information directly from the source
    • Start reading through and organizing information
      • highlighting
sources
Sources
  • Once you select a source, there is some basic information that you will want to acquire. This will include the details that you will need later when you compile your works cited page.
  • For an internet source, for example, you will need:
    • Author’s name: record all if there is more than one
    • Title of article or site
    • Date of electronic publication (if available)
    • Date accessed/printed by you
    • Consider numbering your sources for ease when writing later.
writing your thesis statement
Writing Your Thesis Statement
  • A thesis statement….
    • Is the key point or argument you wish to make about your topic
    • Is a summary of the most important ideas of your paper
    • Should be clear and easy to understand
    • Everything in your paper should refer back to the thesis.
example thesis statements
Example Thesis Statements
  • You want to write an analytical paper that explains the challenge facing admissions counselors:
    • One of the biggest challenges college admissions counselors face is deciding to accept students with high test scores or students with strong extracurricular backgrounds.
example thesis statements1
Example Thesis Statements
  • You want to write an argumentative paper that supports the claim that students should pursue community projects before entering college:
    • High school graduates should be required to take a year off to pursue community service projects before entering college in order to increase their maturity and global awareness.
vague thesis statements
Vague Thesis Statements
  • The space program of the 1960’s helped to unite Americans.
  • The childhood of Queen Elizabeth I of England had a great impact on decisions she made as a ruler.
thesis statement errors to avoid
Thesis Statement Errors to Avoid
  • A thesis must not be in the form of a question.

NOT: Should mothers have the right to genetically test their babies?

  • A thesis must not contain phrases such as “I think” because they weaken the statement.

NOT: In my opinion, plastic surgery is ridiculous.

more thesis information
More Thesis Information
  • A thesis must not contain elements that are not clearly related.
  • NOT: All computers are not helpful; therefore internet use should be banned in elementary schools.
  • A thesis must not be expressed in vague language.

NOT: Bad things have resulted from humans using text messages to communicate.

more thesis information1
More Thesis Information
  • A thesis must not be expressed in muddled or incoherent language.
  • NOT: Stem cell research is a status offense because the participants are not willing so that the relationship is on volunteer basis and the donors are more like victims.
  • A thesis should not be written in figurative language.

NOT: Bio-Engineered food is the phoenix bird of civilization.

s d fa thesis
S + D + FA = Thesis
  • S = Subject
  • D = Direction (of your stand)
  • FA = Focus Areas
  • Americans of Japanese ancestry have been discriminated against through the use of internment camps, educational tracking, and educational quotas.
note taking
Note Taking
  • Keep all information stored together (manila folder, pocket folder, or notebook)
  • Be sure to print and/or photocopy all the information
    • Do not just copy and paste
  • Organize your research by color coding, using sticky notes/note cards, highlighting, stapling, etc.
techniques for notetaking
Techniques for Notetaking
  • Summarize: reduce what you have read to a few important points using your own words
    • Condense a chapter into a short paragraph or a paragraph into a single sentence
  • Paraphrase: restate what you have read using your own words
    • Different from a summary because it does not condense the author’s own ideas but retells the information (using own language) in the same amount of words
  • Quote directly: record the statement or idea word for word and put quotation marks around this information
parenthetical citations
Parenthetical Citations
  • Any material taken from an outside source must be given proper credit in your paper.
    • This does not include common knowledge, which does not need to be cited.
  • The information in reference citations in the text must match the corresponding information in the reference list (works cited page).
parenthetical citations1
Parenthetical Citations
  • The reference citation is inserted at the end of the sentence, as close as possible to the material itdocuments.
  • If the author’s name appears in a sentence in your paper, do not repeat it in the citation.
      • Orwell made this point earlier in “Shooting an Elephant” (65-66).
  • The reference citation at the end of the sentence precedes the punctuation mark that concludes the sentence.
more citations
More Citations
  • To cite an entire work, you need only include the author’s name in the text.
    • Justus Buchler expounds this view in The Man of Light.

If you cite the same author twice in succession, then omit the author’s name in a second citation, using the page number only.

He accepts a sad truth: “History is made by warfare…” (Gould 280). But he wishes to argue that aggressiveness and selfishness by no means define the human being (282).

more citations1
More Citations…
  • If you cite a different author in between, however, you must include the author’s name again in the second citation.
    • “History is made by warfare…” (Gould 280). On the contrary, concern for others appeared early in history (Diamond 38). One must factor….(Gould 282).
revising
Revising
  • Content
    • Improving flow
    • Readability
  • Clarity
    • Logical order
    • Transitions are clear
    • Every paragraph is relevant to your argument (thesis statement)
  • Tone
    • Audience appropriate
    • Limit use of passive voice
editing
Editing
  • Grammatical errors
    • Verb tenses
    • Subject/verb agreement
    • Pronoun references
    • Missing words
  • Mechanical Mistakes
    • Misspelled words
    • Incorrect or missing punctuation
    • Incorrect capitalization
  • Sentence Structure
    • Comma splices
    • Run-on sentences
    • Fragments
revising1
Revising
  • ARMS
    • Add sentences/words
    • Remove unnecessary sentences/words
    • Move sentences/words
    • Substitute sentences/words
editing1
Editing
  • CUPS
    • Capitalize proper nouns
      • names, places, months, titles, the word I
    • Usage – match nouns/verbs correctly
    • Punctuation Marks
      • periods, commas, colons, semicolons, quotes, question marks, exclamation points, hyphens, brackets
    • Spelling
active or passive
Active or Passive?
  • Most of the class is reading the book.
  • Results will be published in the next issue of the journal.
  • The recommendation was vetoed by the president.
  • The leaders are reaching a fair resolution.
  • Scientists have discovered traces of ice on Mars.
errors to avoid in formal writing
Errors to Avoid in Formal Writing
  • Do not use personal pronouns.
    • I, me, my, we, us, you
  • Do not use contractions.
  • Spell out numbers less than 100.
parallel structures
Parallel Structures
  • Mary likes to hike, to swim, and riding a bicycle.
    • Mary likes to hike, to swim, and to ride a bicycle.
    • Mary likes to hike, swim, or ride a bicycle.
    • Mary likes hiking, swimming, and riding a bicycle.
more parallel structure
More Parallel Structure
  • The production manager was asked to write his report quickly, accurately, and in a detailed manner.
  • The production manager was asked to write his report quickly, accurately, and thoroughly.
  • The production manager was asked to write his report in a quick, accurate, and detailed manner.
more parallel structure1
More Parallel Structure
  • The teacher said that he was a poor student because he waited until the last minute to study for the exam, completed his lab problems in a careless manner, and his motivation was low.
  • The teacher said that he was a poor student because he waited until the last minute to study for the exam, completed his lab problems in a careless manner, and lacked motivation.
heading
Heading

Your Name

Mrs. Mills

English IV

13 February 2014

Title

mla formatting guide
MLA Formatting Guide
  • https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/
for an internet source
For an Internet Source
  • Author and/or editor names (if available)
  • Article name in quotation marks (if applicable)
  • Title of the Website, project, or book in italics
  • Any version numbers available, including revisions, posting dates, volumes, or issue numbers
  • Publisher information, including the publisher name and publishing date
  • Page numbers (if available)
  • Medium of publication (always “Web” for anything online)
  • Date you accessed the material
introduction
Introduction
  • First paragraph of paper
  • Often begins with a general statement about the topic and ends with a more specific statement of the main idea of your paper (thesis statement)
  • Purpose of introduction is to let the reader know what the topic is and inform the reader about your point of view
  • Stimulates the reader's curiosity so that he or she will want to read about your topic
slide46
Body
  • Follows introduction
  • Makes up a majority of your paper
  • Consists of a number of paragraphs in which you develop your ideas in detail
  •  Limit each paragraph to one main idea
    • Don't try to talk about more than one idea per paragraph
  • Proves your points continually by using specific examples and quotations from your research
  • Use transition words to ensure a smooth flow of ideas from paragraph to paragraph
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Last paragraph of the paper
  • Purpose is to summarize your points, leaving out specific examples
  • Restates the main idea (thesis statement) of the paper
state library
State Library

library.sd.gov

criteria
Criteria
  • Your research paper must be argumentative.
  • The writer clearly introduces the topic and informs his audience exactly which stance he intends to take in his thesis statement.
    • Although it has been proven that cigarette smoking may lead to health problems in the smoker, the social acceptance of smoking in public places demonstrates that many still do not consider secondhand smoke as dangerous to one's health as firsthand smoke.
choosing your topic1
Choosing Your Topic
  • Select a topic that interests you
  • Pick something you want to know more about
  • Choose something you can easily research
thesis statement
Thesis Statement
  • A thesis statement….
    • Is the key point or argument you wish to make about your topic
    • Is a summary of the most important ideas of your paper
    • Should be clear and easy to understand
example
Example
  • You want to write an argumentative paper that supports the claim that students should pursue community projects before entering college:
    • High school graduates should be required to take a year off to pursue community service projects before entering college in order to increase their maturity and global awareness.
slide54

Name

Sally Student

English IV

13 February 2014

Title

I. Introduction

a. Thesis Sentence: A technologically advanced society will eventually destroy itself due to fear, increased use of weapons of mass destruction, and advances in military intelligence.

II. Background Information (if needed)

III. Thesis Topic #1 - Fear

a. Paranoia of Machine vs. Humans

b. Relying on Machines more than Humans

IV. Thesis Topic #2 – Increased Use of Weapons of Mass Destruction

a. More Violence

b. No Need for these Weapons

V. Thesis Topic #3 – Advances in Military Intelligence

a. More Power Over the People

b. Increased Chance of Power Getting in the Wrong Hands

VI. Conclusion

(Refer to your thesis sentence here and restate the idea in similar but not identical words.)

for a book
For a Book
  • Author’s name: record all if there is more than one
  • Names of any editors or translators
  • Title and subtitle
  • Edition (if other than the first)
  • Publishing information: city, publishing company, date
  • Palmer, William J. Dickens and New Historicism. New York: St. Martin's, 1997. Print.
  • (Palmer 263)
for a periodical
For a Periodical
  • Author’s name: record all if there is more than one
  • Names of any editors or translators
  • Title and subtitle
  • Title of magazine, journal, or newspaper
  • Date of issue
  • Volume, section, and issue numbers (if available)
  • Page Numbers
  • Peacock, James. "TV Makes a Too-Close Call." Time 20 Nov. 2000: 70-71. Print.
  • (Peacock 71)
for macbeth
For Macbeth

Shakespeare, William. Macbeth. Literature: The British Tradition. Boston: Prentice Hall, 2007. 306-394. Print.

  • (Shakespeare2.2.34-35).
  • One can clearly see Macbeth’s guilt after killing Duncan when he states “Methought I heard a voice cry ‘Sleep no more / Macbeth does murder sleep…’” (2.2.34-35).
slide58

Work Cited

Shakespeare, William. Macbeth. Literature: The British Tradition. Boston: Prentice Hall, 2007. 306-394. Print.

comma usage
Comma Usage
  • Compound Sentences
    • His birthday party was last week, and it was fun.
  • Series
    • The crowds, the aromas from the hot dog carts, and the talkative taxi drivers made the trip memorable.
  • Adjectives of Equal Rank
    • A tall, majestic building rose above the skyline.
    • NOT: The long ticket line is moving faster than the shorter line.
  • Introductory Material
    • When the United States entered World War I, he left Congress and enlisted in the Army Air Service.
  • Nonessential Information
    • The Dawson’s Boat House, where seagulls circle overhead, burned yesterday.
    • ESSENTIAL: The race was won by the champion runner Jackie Joyner Kersee.
semicolons
Semicolons
  • Independent Clauses Not Connected Using Conjunctions
    • The man was wet; he was standing in the rain without an umbrella.
  • Independent Clauses Using Conjunctive Adverbs
    • The capital moved to Philadelphia; therefore, the First Family moved as well.
  • Avoid Confusion With Items in a Series Contain Commas
    • He asked her to work for him on Monday, March 18; Tuesday, March 19; and Wednesday, March 20.
colons
Colons
  • Before a List
    • We need the following items at the grocery store: milk, bread, cheese, and eggs.
  • To Introduce the Effect of an Action
    • There was only one way he could win: to cheat.
  • Before Some Quotations
    • This is what he had to say about mathematicians: “I have hardly ever known a mathematician who was capable of reasoning” (Plato 71).
direct quotations
Direct Quotations
  • Represent Person’s Exact Words
  • Use Single Quotation Marks When You Have a Quote Inside of Another Quote
    • Dylan Thomas mentions this in his book when he states: “My psychologist felt that one Christmas ‘was so much like another’ for the boy” (Thomas 63).
block quote
Block Quote
  • More Than Four Typed Lines
  • Do Not Use Quotation Marks
  • Indent 2 inches
    • Gatsby experiences a moment of clarity while standing with Daisy on his dock. Fitzgerald writes:

Possibly it had occurred to him that the colossal significance of that light had now to him vanished forever. Compared to the great distance that had separated him from Daisy it had seemed very near to her, almost touching her. It had seemed as close as a star to the moon. Now it was again a green light on a dock. His count of enchanted objects had diminished by one (Fitzgerald 98).

italics underlining vs quotation marks
Italics/Underlining vs. Quotation Marks
  • Long Works Are Italicized OR Underlined
    • Books
    • Plays
    • Long Poems
    • Movies
    • TV Series
    • Newspapers/Magazines
  • Short Works Are Surrounded By Quotation Marks
    • Songs
    • Chapters in a Book
    • Episodes in a TV Series
    • One-Act Plays
    • Short Poems
    • Articles
brackets ellipses
Brackets & Ellipses
  • Use Brackets To Enclose Words You Insert When Quoting Someone Else
    • These words are written on a monument in Japan: “Rest in peace. The mistake [nuclear war] shall not be made again.”
  • Use Ellipses When Words Have Been Omitted From a Direct Quote
    • Charles Dickens writes in Our Mutual Friend: “I cannot help it…I love her against reason” (Dickens 45).
apostrophes
Apostrophes
  • Add ‘s To Show the Possessive Case For MOST Singular Nouns
    • The girl’s book
  • Add ‘ To Show the Possessive Case For Plural Nouns Ending In s
    • The boys’ papers
  • Add ‘s To Show the Possessive Case For Plural Nouns Not Ending In s
    • The children’s toys
apostrophes1
Apostrophes
  • Make the Final Noun Possessive With Joint Ownership
    • Will and Mary’s dog has won many prizes.
  • Make Each Noun Possessive With Individual Ownership
    • Susan’s, Marie’s, and Alice’s papers were graded by the teacher.
  • Watch Out For Contractions
    • Whose, Its, and Their show Possession
    • Who’s, It’s, and They’re Are Contractions
farther vs further
Farther vs. Further
  • Farther
    • Physical Distance
    • “How much farther until we get to Grandma’s house?” the child whined.
  • Further
    • Metaphysical or Figurative Distance
    • “If you complain further,” the mother responded, “I’m not letting you have dessert!”