Bythotrephes cederstroemi bc cercopagis pengoi cp neil j elms 4 13 11 bio 108r dr skinner
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The Water “Fleas”. Bythotrephes cederstroemi (BC) & Cercopagis pengoi (CP) Neil J. Elms – 4/13/11 BIO 108R - Dr. Skinner. Spiny and Fishhook “Flea” Characteristics. 1 – 5 cm long Eye Spot Egg Pouch Tail = 70% of Total Length 1- 4 Tail Barbs Mandibles Mistaken for Daphnia.

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Bythotrephes cederstroemi bc cercopagis pengoi cp neil j elms 4 13 11 bio 108r dr skinner

The Water “Fleas”

Bythotrephes cederstroemi (BC) & Cercopagis pengoi (CP)

Neil J. Elms – 4/13/11

BIO 108R - Dr. Skinner


Bythotrephes cederstroemi bc cercopagis pengoi cp neil j elms 4 13 11

Spiny and Fishhook “Flea”

Characteristics

  • 1 – 5 cm long

  • Eye Spot

  • Egg Pouch

  • Tail = 70% of Total Length

  • 1- 4 Tail Barbs

  • Mandibles

  • Mistaken for Daphnia

Taxonomy

Kingdom – Animal

Phylum – Arthropoda

Subphylum – Crustacea

Class – Branchiopoda

Subclass – Phyllopoda

Order – Diplostraca

Infraorder – Onychopoda

Family - Cerpagididae


Bythotrephes cederstroemi bc cercopagis pengoi cp neil j elms 4 13 11

Spiny and Fishhook Origin

  • Eurasia – Black, Caspian, Aral, Azov, & Baltic Seas

  • Great Lakes 1980’s - 90’s; Finger Lakes 2000

  • Ballast Tank Stowaways

    • United States

      • Commercial and Sport Fishing Gear

      • Nets, Downriggers, Live Wells



Bythotrephes cederstroemi bc cercopagis pengoi cp neil j elms 4 13 11

“Flea” Reproduction

  • Days to a Week Long Life Span

  • Both, Sexually and Asexually

  • Up to 13 Clones Every 10 Days (May thru September)

  • Brood Pouch

    • Developing Embryos

      • Female Clones (May thru August)

        • Dies After Cloning

      • Resting / Dormant Eggs

        • Male and/or Female (1-2 Eggs)


Bythotrephes cederstroemi bc cercopagis pengoi cp neil j elms 4 13 11

“Flea” Eco Impacts

  • Eat and Compete with Native Zooplankton (Daphnia)

  • Rapid Reproduction / Cloning Leads to Eutrophication

  • Comfortable in Clear and Brackish / Fresh and Salt

  • Success at Various Water Columns

  • Adaptive

    • No Tail Molts to Ensure Continuous Protection

    • Temperature Regulates Population

    • Dormant Eggs Carried Thru Poor Conditions

    • Size

  • Avoided by Fry

    • Choke and Suffocate Fry with Tail Barbs

      • Depletes Food Resources for Larger

      • Fish, Birds and Humans

  • No Known Method of Control or Eradication

    • Practice “Good Fishing Hygiene”


Bythotrephes cederstroemi bc cercopagis pengoi cp neil j elms 4 13 11

“Flea” Resources

  • www.caspianenvironment.org/biodb/eng/zooplankton/Cercopagis%20pengoi/main.htm

  • www.westsidenews.net/OldSite/westside/news/2001/0122/features/lakestudy.html

  • www.great-lakes.net/envt/flora-fauna/invasive/spinyflea.html

  • www.dnr.wi.gov/org/caer/ce/eek/critter/insect/waterflea.htm

  • www.glerl.noaa.gov/seagrant/cercopagis/cercopagisID.htm

  • www.epa.gov/grtlakes/monitoring/exotics/cercopagis.html

  • www.gfawesome.org/mad_science/activities.html

  • www.seagrant.umn.edu/education/index.html

  • www.epa.gov/region5/enved/resources.html

  • www.seagrant.umn.edu/exotics/spiny.html

  • www.dnr.wi.gov/invasives/fact/spiny.htm

  • www.iiseagrant.org/EXOTICSP/


Bythotrephes cederstroemi bc cercopagis pengoi cp neil j elms 4 13 11 bio 108r dr skinner1

Questions?

Bythotrephes cederstroemi (BC) & Cercopagis pengoi (CP)

Neil J. Elms – 4/13/11

BIO 108R - Dr. Skinner