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Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

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Sigmund Freud (1856-1939). A Brief Bio…. Born into a poor Jewish Austrian family Initially studied to become a doctor Believed mental illness did not originate from a purely physical cause Smoked over 20 cigars per day Fled the Nazis in 1938 Lost 3 sisters in the Holocaust.

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a brief bio
A Brief Bio…
  • Born into a poor Jewish Austrian family
  • Initially studied to become a doctor
  • Believed mental illness did not originate from a purely physical cause
  • Smoked over 20 cigars per day
  • Fled the Nazis in 1938
    • Lost 3 sisters in the Holocaust
early influences on freud
Early Influences on Freud

Jean Charcot (1825-1893)

  • Hypnotism

Josef Breuer (1842-1925)

  • Significance of repressed events
  • Anna O.
  • “Talking Cure”
the id
The Id

Basic drives (life/sexual and death/aggressive)

  • No sense of fear, morality, or good/evil
  • Only sees the self—no awareness of others
  • The pleasure principle
    • Eros
    • Thanatos
      • Repetition Compulsion
the ego
The Ego

-The mediator between Id and the demands of society

  • Formed by the experience of pain—defends the Id
  • Does not exist to punish the Id—exists to fulfill the Id’s desires in socially acceptable ways
  • The Reality Principle

-Censors painful feelings from reaching consciousness

the superego
The Superego

The conscience

  • Judges the Id and is responsible for guilt, pride, and satisfaction
  • Represents morality and parental authority
psycho sexual stages of development according to freud
Psycho-Sexual Stages of Development According to Freud
  • Stages shape the adult personality
    • Frustration or fixation in a particular stage leads to issues later in life
the oral stage birth 1 year old
The Oral Stage: Birth-1 year old

Sexual pleasure centers around the mouth

  • i.e., breast feeding
the anal stage 2 3 years old
The Anal Stage: 2-3 years old
  • Sexual pleasure centers around defecation and the anus
      • i.e., toilet training
the phallic stage 4 5 years old different for boys and girls
The Phallic Stage: 4-5 years old [different for boys and girls]

Boys:

  • Oedipus Complex
  • Castration Complex
  • In “healthy” boys, the conflict with the father is resolved
the phallic stage 4 5 years old
The Phallic Stage: 4-5 years old

Girls

  • The Electra Complex
    • “Penis Envy”
  • Girls cannot have a castration complex, and thus can never resolve their Electra Complex
    • This explains their “natural” passive, defensive role
    • Having a baby satisfies penis envy
the latent stage 6 12 years old
The Latent Stage: 6-12 years old
  • Sexual feelings developed in the first three stages are repressed
freud s methodology
Freud’s Methodology

-Repressed sexual desires are the key to the personality

more methodology
More Methodology…

-Free association

-Transference

-Dreams

the interpretation of dreams 1900
The Interpretation of Dreams (1900)
  • The Censor
  • Displacement
  • Condensation
  • Symbolization
  • Projection
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