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Referencing Styles (APA, MLA, Chicago University Style): Conversion of APA Style into others. Patanjali Mishra Assistant professor Vardhaman Mahaveer Open Univerity Kota , Rajasthan. APA: 6 th edition: July 2009 MLA: 7 th edition : 2009 University of Chicago Style:16 th edition:

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referencing styles apa mla chicago university style conversion of apa style into others

Referencing Styles(APA, MLA, Chicago University Style):Conversion of APA Style into others


Assistant professor

VardhamanMahaveer Open Univerity

Kota, Rajasthan

APA: 6th edition:
    • July 2009
  • MLA: 7th edition :
    • 2009
  • University of Chicago Style:16th edition:
    • 2010
american psychological association apa publication manual
American Psychological Association (APA) Publication Manual
  • This guide is based on the recommendations of the fifth/sixth editions of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association published by the American Psychological Association (2001/2009)
Single-Author Book & part of a book

Vygotsky, L.S.(1978). Mind and society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

  • Foreword/ preface/ introduction

Papin, R.E. (2003). Introduction. Selected poetry of Charls Darling: 1977-2002 (pp. iv-xxii). Colchester, CT: Colophan Books.

  • Book with Two or More Authors

Wilson, S., Floden, R., & Ferrini-Mundy,J. (2001). Teacher preparation research: Current knowledge and recommendations. Seattle, WA; Centre for the Study of Teaching and Policy.

Edition Other Than First (Republished Book)

Creech, P. J. (2004). Radiology and the technology of the absurd. Boston: Houghton- Miffin. ( Original work published 1975)

  • An Edited Volume (Anthology or Reference Book)

Cochran- Smith, M., & Zeichner, K. M. (Eds.). (2005). Studying teacher education: The report of the AERA Penal on Research and Teacher Education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Stanton, D. C., & Farbman, E. (Eds.). (2003).The female autograph: Theory and practice of autobiography. Middletown, CT: Ibis Bookstore Press.

  • An article or signed chapter in an edited volume

Cochran- Smith, M., & Fries, K. (2005). Researching teacher education in changing times: Politics and paradigms. In M. Cochran- Smith & K. M. Zeichner (Eds.), Studying teacher education: The report of the AERA Penal on Research and Teacher Education (pp.69-109). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Book without Author or Editor Listed

Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary. (1961). Springfield, MA: G. & C. Merriam.

  • Multi-volume Book

Nadeau, B. M. & Darling, J. M. (Eds.). (1994-2003). Studies in the history of cutlery (Vols. 4-6). Utica, NY: Mohican Valley- River Press.

  • Secondary Resources

O’Connor, C. O. & DeLoatch, K. L. (2003). Whatever happened to the humanities? In I. Rubenzahl (Ed.), Studies in Byzantine Intrigue (pp. 235-278). Hartford, CT: Merganser University Press.


Shorter Oxford English dictionary (5th ed.). (2002). New York: Oxford University Press.

  • References: Dissertation or Dissertation Abstract

Darling, C. W. (1976). Giver of due regard: the poetry of Richard Wilbur. Dissertation Abstract International, 44, 4465. (AAD44-8794)

  • Actual dissertation (usually from the shelves of the university where it was written, sometimes obtained through interlibrary loan):

Darling, C. W. (1976). Giver of due regard: the poetry of Richard Wilbur. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT.

Magazines/ Periodicals

Wheatcroft, G. (2004, June). The Tragedy of Tony Blair. The Atlantic, 293 56-72.

Thomas, E. & Hosenball, M. (2004, May 31). Bush’s Mr. Wrong: The Rise and Fall of Chalabi. Newsweek, 143, 22-32.

  • Scholarly Journal

Roschelle, J., Tatar, D.,Shechtman, N., & Knusden, J. (2008). The role of scaling up in designing for band evaluating robustness. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 68, 149-170.

Christie, John S. (1993) Fathers and virgins: Garcia Marquez’s Faulknerian Chronicle of a Death Foretold. Latin American Literary Review, 13(3), 21-29.

  • Newspaper Articles, Editorials, letters to the editor, etc.

Poirot, C. (2004, March 17). HIV prevention pill goes beyond ‘morning after’. The Hartford Courant, pp. F1, F6.

Silverman, P. H. (2004, June). Genetic Engineering [Letter to the editor]. The Atlantic,293 14.

Nonprint resources (Film, Recording, Video, television or radio program, etc.)

Redford, R. (Director). (1980). Ordinary people [Film]. Hollywood: Paramount.

    • (Film with limited circulation):
    • Holdt, D. (producer), & Ehlers, E. (Director). (2002). River at High Summer: The St. Lawrence [Film]. (Available from Mergancer Films, Inc., 61Woodland Street, Hartford, CT 06105)
    • (Cassette):
    • Lake, F. L. (Author and Speaker). (1989). Bias and organizational decision making [Cassette]. Gainesville: Edwards.
    • (Television program):
    • Safer, M. (Narrator). (2004). Torture at Abu Ghraib [Television broadcast]. Hartford: WSFB.
    • (Musical recording):
    • Barber, S. (1995). Cello Sonata. On Barber[CD]. New York: EMI Records Ltd.
Personal Interview, Phone Conversation, Letter, Non-archived E-mail, etc.
    • Wilbur finds himself sometimes surprised by the claims of religiosity made by contemporaries. (Personal letter, March 28, 1977)
    • (Phone conversation): According to Connie May Fowler, the source for her novelSugar Cane were largely autobiographical (personal phone conversation, July 22, 2003).
    • Classroom Lecture: In an Introduction to Literature lecture at Capital Community College on April 14, 2004, Professor Charles Darling described William Carlos William’s poem as a barnyard snapshot (C. W. Darling, ENG 102 lecture, April 14, 2004).
    • Lecturer distributed material at the lecture: Darling, C. W. (2004, April). Images at Work in the Poetry of William Carlos Williams. Outline presented in a classroom lecture at Capital Community College, Hartford, CT.
Government Documents
    • Report from the Government Printing Office, corporate author: National Institute of Mental Health. (1982). Television and behaviour: Ten years of scientific progress (DHHS Publication No. A82-1195). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    • Reports from a Document and Deposit Service (NTIS, ERIC) other than U. S. Government: Tendy, S. (1980). Development of behavioural techniques to control hyperaggressiveness in young children (CYC Report No. 80-3562. Washington, DC: council on Young Children. (NTIS No. P880-14322).
    • Gottfredson, L. S. (1980).How valid are occupational reinforce pattern scores? (Report No. CSOS-R-292). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University. Centre for Social Organization of Schools. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 183465)
Electronic and online resources:
  • Good, T. (2008, April 7) Teaching mathematics in Grades 3-5 classrooms. Teachers College Record. Retrieved April 19, 2008, from
  • Central Vein Occlusion Study Group. (1993, October 2). Central vein occlusion study of photocoagulation: Manual of operations [675 paragraphs]. Online Journal of Current Clinical Trials [on-line serial]. Available: Doc No. 92
Parenthetical Citation
  • The APA system of citing sources indicates the author’s last name and the date, in parentheses, within the text of your paper. Charlotte and Emily Bronte were polar opposites, not only in their personalities but in their sources of inspiration for writing (Taylor, 1990).
  • If the author is named in the next, only the year is cited. According to Irene Taylor (1990), these personalities of Charlotte. . .
  • If both the name of the author and the date are used in the text, parenthetical reference is not necessary. In a 1989 article, Gould explains Darwin’s most successful . . .
Specific citations of pages or chapters follow the year.

Emily Bronte “expressed increasing hostility for the world of human relationships, whether sexual or social” (Taylor, 1988, p.11)

  • When the reference is to a work by two authors, cite both names each time the reference appears.

Sexual- selection theory often has been used to explore patterns of various insect mating (Alcock & Thornhill, 1983) ... Alcock & Thornhill (1983) also demonstrate. . .

  • When the reference is to a work by three to five authors, cite all the authors the first time the reference appears. In a subsequent reference, use the first author’s last name followed by et al. (meaning “and others”).

Patterns by byzantine intrigue have long plagued the internal politics of community college administration in Texas (Douglas et al., 1997)

When the reference is to work by six or more authors, use only the first author’s name followed et al. in the first and all subsequent references. The only exceptions to this rule are when some confusion might result because of similar names or the same author is being cited. In that case cite enough authors so that the distinction is clear.
  • When the reference is to a work by a corporate author, use the name of the organization as the author.

Retired Officers retain access to all of the university’s educational and recreational facilities (Columbia University, 1987, p. 54)

  • Personal letters, telephone calls, and other material that cannot be retrieved are not listed in References but are cited in the text.

Jesse Moore (telephone conversation, April 17, 1989) confirmed that the ideas. . . .

Parenthetical references may mention more than one work, particularly when ideas have been summarized after drawing from several sources. Multiple citations should be arranged as follows.
  • List two or more works by the same author in order of the date of publication: (Gould, 1987, 1989)
  • Differentiate works by same author and with the same publication date by adding an identifying letter to each date: (Bloom, 1987a, 1987b)
  • List work by different authors in alphabetical order by last name, and use semicolons to separate the references: (Gould, 1989; Smith, 1983; Tutwiler, 1989)
university of chicago style
University of Chicago-Style
  • Book
    • One author:

Doniger, Wendy, 1999. Splitting the difference. Chicago. University of Chicago Press.

    • Two authors:

Cowlishaw, Guy, and Robin Dunbar. 2000. Primate conversation biology. Chicago University of Chicago Press.

    • Four or more authors:

Laumann, Edward O., John H. Gagnon, Robert T. Michael, and Stuart Michael. 1994. The social organisation of sexuality: Sexual practice in United States. Chicago:University of Chicago Press.

    • Editor, translator, or compiler instead of author:

Lattimore, Richmond, trans. 1951. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago:University of Chicago Press.

Editor, translator, or compiler in addition to author:

Bonnefoy, Yves. 1995. New and selected poems. Ed. John Naughton and Anthony Rudolf. Chicago:University of Chicago Press.

  • Chapter or other part of a book:

Wiese, Andrew. 2006. “The house I live in”:Race, class, and African American suburban dreams in the postwar United States. In The new suburban history, ed. Kevin M. Kruse and Thomas J. Sugrue, 99-119. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  • Chapter of an edited volume originally published elsewhere (as in primary sources):

Cicero, Quintus Tullius. 1986. Handbook of canvassing for the consulship. In Rome: Late republic and principate, edited by Wlter Emil KaegiJr and Peter White. Vol. 2 of university of Chicago readings in western civilization, ed. John Boyer and Julius Kirshner, 33-46. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Originally published in Evelyn S. Shuckburgh, trans., The letter of Cicero, Vol. 1 (London: George Bell & Sons, 1908).

Preface, foreword, introduction or similar part of a book:

Pieger, James. 1982. Introduction to Frankenstine; or, The modern Prometheus, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, xi-xxxvii. Chicago:University of Chicago Press.

  • Book published electronically:

If a book is available in more than one format, you should cite the version you consulted, but you may also list the other formats, as in the second example below.

Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. 1987. The founders’ Constitution. Chicago:University of Chicago Press. .

Journal article
    • Article in a print journal:

Smith, John Maynard. 1998. The origin of altruism. Nature 393: 639-40.

    • Article in an online journal:

If an access date is requires by your publisher or discipline, include it parenthetically at the end of the citation, as the fourth example below.

Hlatky, Mark A., Derek Boothroyd, Eric Vittinghoff, Penny Sharp, and Mary A. Whooley. 2002. Quality of life and depressive symptoms in post menopausal women after receiving hormone therapy: Result from the Heart and Estrogen/ Progestin Replacement Study HERS) trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 287, no. 5 (February 6), (accessed January 7, 2004)

Popular magazine article:

Martin, Steve. 2002. Sports-interview shocker. New Yorker, May 6.

  • Newspaper article:

Newspaper article may be cited in running text (“As William Niederkorn in a New York Times article on June 20, 2002, . . .”) instead of a note or an in-text citation, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography or reference list as well. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.

Niederkorn, William S. 2002. A scholar recants on his “Shakespeare” discovery. New York Times, June 20, Arts section, Midwest edition.

  • Dissertation:

Amundin, M. 1991. Click repetition rate patterns in communicative sounds from the harbour porpoise, Phoeocnaphoeocna. PhD diss., Stockholm University.

Paper presented at a meeting or conference:

Doyle, Brian. 2002. Howling like dogs: Metaphorical language in Psalm 59. Paper presented at the annual international meeting for the society of Biblical Literature, June 19-22, in Berlin, Germany.

  • Web site:

Web sites may be cited in running text (“On its web site, the Evenston Public Library Board of Trustees states . . . “) instead of an in-text citation and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography or reference list as well. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations. If an access date is required by your publisher or discipline, include it parenthetically at the end of the citation, as the second example below.

Evenston Public Library Board of Trustees. Evenston Public Library strategic plan , 2000-2010:A decade of outreach. Evenston Public Library. .

Weblog entry or comment:

Weblog entries or comments may be cited in running text (“In a comment posted to the Becker-Posner Blog on March 6, 2006, Peter Pearson noted . . . “) instead of in a note or an in-text citation , and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography or reference list as well. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations. If an access date is required by your publisher or discipline, include it parenthetically at the end of the citation, as in the first example below.

Becker-Posner blog, The.

  • E-mail message: E-mail message may be cited in running text (“In an e-mail message to the author on October 31, 2005, John Doe revealed . . .”) instead of in a note or an in-text citation and they are rarely listed in a bibliography or reference list.
  • Item in online database: Journal article published in online databases should be cited as shown above, under “Article in an online Journal.” If an access date is required by your publisher or discipline, include it parenthetically at the end of the citation, as in the first example below.

Perseus Digital Library. .

modern language association mla style
Modern Language Association (MLA) Style
  • Book(one author)
    • Works Cited: Johnson, Charles Richard. Middle Passage. New York: Atheneum, 1990.
    • Parenthetical: (Johnson 176)
  • Books (Two to three authors)
    • Works cited: Leakey, Mary D. And Louis S.B. Leakey. Some String Figures from North East Angola. Lisboa: Museu do Dundo, 1949.
    • Parenthetical: (Leakey and Leakey 92)
Books (corporate author)
    • Works Cited:Batelle Institute. Land Use. West Central Ohio, Dayton Power and Light Company. Columbus: Battelle Institute, 1960.
    • Parenthetical: (Battelle 78)
  • Books ( Anthology)
    • Works Cited: McNally, John, ed. Humor Me: An Anthology of Humor by Writers of Color. Iowa City: U. of Iowa P, 2002.
    • Parenthetical: (McNally xv)
  • Books ( Works in a Anthology)
    • Works Cited: James, Henry. “The Friends of the Friends.” The Norton Book of Ghost Stories. Ed. Brad Leithauser. New York: Norton, 1994. 40-60.
    • Parenthetical: (James 47)
Scholarly Journal Article (One Author)
    • Works Cited: Myerson, Joel. “A Calender of Transcendental Club Meetings.” American Literature 44(1972): 197-207.
    • Parenthetical: (Myerson 199)
  • Scholarly Journal Article (Two Author)
    • Works Cited: Brown, Cecelia M., and Lina Ortega. “ Information- seeking Behaviour of Physical Science Librarians: Research and Practice.” College & Research Libraries 66 (2005): 231-247.
    • Parenthetical: (Brown and Ortega 237)
  • Magazine Article(one author)
    • Works Cited: Cook, Mariana. “Cousin Kay.” Victoria. Nov.2001: 27-28.
    • Parenthetical: (Cook 28)
Newspaper Article
    • Works Cited: Johnson, David Cay. “Got Game? Got Old Game?”New York Times 11 July 2003, late ed.: f1 +
    • Parenthetical: (Johnson F1)
  • Encyclopedia Article
    • Works Cited: “Magna Carta.” The New Encyclopedia Britannica. 15th ed. 1998.
    • Parenthetical: (“Magna Carta” 521)
  • Review
    • Works Cited: Barth, Melissa E. Rev of The Summons, by John Grisham. Magill Book
    • Review 1 Nov. 2002: 221
    • Parenthetical: (Barth 221)
Electronic Scholarly Journal Article
    • Works Cited : Scott, Jonathan. “Advanced, Repressed, angPoPular: Langston Hughes During the Cold War.” College Literature 33, no.2 (Spring 2006): 27 August 2007
    • Parenthetical: (Scott)
  • Items from a Library Database
    • Works Cited: Clark,Zsuzsanna. “From Saturday- Night Poetry to Big Brother.” New Stateman 132 (21 July 2003): 32 . Academic Search Complete EBSCOHost. The Ohio
    • State University Libraries, Columbus, OH 27 Aug. 2007 .
    • Parenthetical: (Clark)
  • Thesis or Dissertation (Digital)
    • Works Cited:Ryals, Douglas Wesley. Renaissance Speculation: Shakespeare and the Prehistory of Liberalis. Diss. University of California, Irvine, 2006, Proquest Digital Dissertations. Proquest. The Ohio State University Libraries, Columbus, OH, 27 Aug 2007 < http://www.>.
    • Parenthetical: (Ryals 251)
Electronic Book
    • Works Cited:Hartog, Hendrick, Man and Wife in America: A history. 2002. 27 August 2007.
    • Parenthetical: (Hartog 2002)
  • Web Site
    • Works Cited:Campell, Donna. The Edith Wharton Society 5 Aug. 2003. Gonzaga University . indexa.html.
    • Parenthetical: (Campbell)
  • Television Program
    • Works Cited: “Popularity of Fur on Rise Again.” Narr. Virginia Cha. Sunday Today NBC. WNBC, New York. 9 Feb. 2003.
    • Parenthetical: (“Popularity of Fur”)
  • Sound Recording
    • Works Cited: Copland , Aaron. Long Time Ago: American Songs. Saint Paul Chamber Orch. Cond. Hugh Wolff. Teldec,1994.
    • Parenthetical: (Copland)
computer assisted
Computer Assisted
  • Zotero:
    • An extension to the popular open-source web browser Firefox
    • the ability to store author, title, and publication fields and to export that information as formatted references
    • ability to interact, tag, and search in advanced ways
  • Mendeley:
    • Stands alone and commercially available for Windows, Mac and Linux
    • a desktop and web program for managing and sharing research papers
    • combines Mendeley Desktop, a PDF and reference management application
  • End Note:
    • search online bibliographic databases
    • organize their references
    • images and PDFs in any language
    • create bibliographies and figure lists instantly