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Capitalization

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  1. Capitalization

  2. Proper nouns and proper adjectives • Proper nouns name a specific person, place, or thing. • Capitalize the first word of a proper noun and each additional important word

  3. Try It Out p. 225 • Finally uncle albert introduced the governor from the southwest. • A caravan headed west across the sahara. • The tower of london is situated on the thames river. • Astronomers studied mars from the mount palomar observatory. • Yesterday captain jason clark entered the gulf of mexico.

  4. More Proper Nouns and Proper Adjectives

  5. Titles do not capitalize CAPITALIZE ~The first and last words of the title ~All nouns, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, and adjectives ~Any conjunction or preposition of five letters or more BETWEEN, BESIDES, UNDERNEATH, ALONGSIDE, ETC. ~Articles (the, a, an), unless the article is the first or (less likely, of course) last word of the title ~Prepositions of four letters or fewer (unless the preposition is the first or last word of the title) ~Conjunctions of four letters or fewer (unless the conjunction is the first or last word of the title) ~The particle "to" used with an infinitive (unless the "to" is the first or last word of the title)**

  6. What’s a Proper Adjective? A proper noun names a specific person, place, or thing. A proper adjective is formed from a proper noun.

  7. Try It Out p. 226 • The declaration of independence was adopted on july 4, 1776. • The official languages of the united nations are english, french, spanish, russian, chinese, and arabic. • During the ice age, temperatures scarcely rose in the summer. • At the club’s august meeting, indian food was served. • During the war of 1812, british ships blockaded the coast. • In detroit, general hull led soldiers across the detroit river and into canada.

  8. If the item is incorrect, you will be visited by Charlie, the bookworm. He will tell you the rule of capitalization that is giving you a challenge. • Create a list of item numbers that are troublesome for you. Hello, I’m Charlie. I’ll be here to help you along your journey.

  9. 1. I am studying italian, English, and math this semester. • Correct as written. • I am studying italian, english, and math this semester. • I am studying italian, English, and math this semester. • I am studying Italian, English, and math this semester.

  10. Excellent! You remembered to capitalize proper nouns and adjectives, as well as to not capitalize school subjects, except language classes and course names that include a number. Please move to number two.

  11. Remember to capitalize proper nouns and adjectives and do not capitalize school subjects, except language classes and course names that include a number.

  12. 2. Go west for five Streets and then turn south on Main Lane. • Correct as written. • Go west for five streets and then turn south on Main Lane. • Go West for five streets and then turn south on main lane. • Go west for five streets and the turn south on main lane.

  13. Excellent! Always capitalize geographical names except when they indicate direction. Please move to item three.

  14. Remember to capitalize geographical names except when they indicate direction.

  15. 3. The Vice President of National Honor Society is new to our school. • Correct as written. • The vice President of National Honor Society is new to our school. • The vice president of National Honor Society is new to our school. • The Vice president of National Honor Society is new to our school.

  16. Way to go! Only capitalize a person’s title when it comes before the person’s name. Move on to item four.

  17. Don’t forget that you only capitalize a person’s title when it comes before the person’s name.

  18. 4. My favorite line from that poem is, “gather ye rosebuds while ye may, old time is still a-flying.” • Correct as written. • my favorite line from that poem is, “gather ye rosebuds while ye may, old time is still a-flying.” • My favorite line from the poem is, “Gather ye rosebuds while ye may, old time is still a-flying.” • My favorite line from the Poem is “Gather ye rosebuds while ye may, old time is still a-flying.”

  19. Yes! You remembered to capitalize the first word of a quoted sentence. On to item five.

  20. Don’t forget to capitalize the first word of a quoted sentence

  21. 5. Wishbone was a model patient according to the vet, dr. Alvin Wright, jr. • Correct as written. • Wishbone was a model patient according to the vet, Dr. Alvin Wright, jr. • Wishbone was a model patient according to the Vet, Dr. Alvin Wright,Jr. • Wishbone was a model patient according to the vet, Dr. Alvin Wright,Jr.

  22. Correct! Capitalize the names of persons and animals. Also, capitalize the first letter of initials that precede or follow names. You may go on to number six.

  23. Capitalize the names of persons and animals. Also, capitalize the first letter of initials that precede or follow names.

  24. 6. In late spring, the president usually delivers a Memorial Day speech at Arlington National Cemetery. 1. Correct as written. 2. In late Spring, the president usually delivers a Memorial Day speech at Arlington National Cemetery. 3. In late spring, the president usually delivers a memorial day speech at arlington National Cemetery. 4. In late spring, the president usually delivers a Memorial Day speech at Arlington national cemetery.

  25. Correct! Capitalize the names of historical events and periods, special events, and holidays and other calendar items. You may go on to number seven.

  26. Capitalize the names of historical events and periods, special events, and holidays and other calendar items.

  27. 7. In English 9, we are studying The House on Mango Street by the famous hispanic author, Susan Cisneros. • Correct as written. • In English 9, we are studying The House on Mango Street by the famous Hispanic author, Susan Cisneros. • In english 9, we are studying The House on Mango Street by the famous hispanic author, Susan Cisneros. • In English 9, we are studying The House On Mango Street by the famous hispanic author, Susan Cisneros.

  28. Excellent! Capitalize the names of nationalities, races, and people. Also, remember to capitalize the first and all important words in titles and subtitles. You may now advance to number eight. You’re almost finished.

  29. Capitalize the names of nationalities, races, and people. Also, remember to capitalize the first and all important words in titles and subtitles.

  30. 8. Grandpa was so happy to see my Mom after she and aunt Mae returned from their trip. • Correct as written. • Grandpa was so happy to see my mom after she and aunt Mae returned from their trip. • Grandpa was so happy to see my mom after she and Aunt Mae returned from their trip. • Grandpa was so happy to see my Mom after she and Aunt Mae returned from their trip.

  31. Excellent! Capitalize a word showing a family relationship when the word is used before or in place of the person’s name, unless the word is preceded by a possessive. Move on to nine.

  32. Capitalize a word showing a family relationship when the word is used before or in place of the person’s name, unless the word is preceded by a possessive.

  33. 9. I was late to prof. Johnson’s class because I had been to an appointment with Sara Miles, m.d. • Correct as written. • I was late to Prof. Johnson’s class because I had been to an appointment with Sara Miles, m.d. • I was late to Prof. Johnson’s class because I had been to an appointment with Sara Miles, M.D. • I was late to prof. Johnson’s class because I had been to an appointment with Sara Miles, M.d.

  34. Excellent! Generally, abbreviations are capitalized if the words they stand for are capitalized.Move on to number ten.

  35. Generally, abbreviations are capitalized if the words they stand for are capitalized.

  36. 10. My aunt and I visited universal studios in Orlando, fla. 1. Correct as written. 2. My Aunt and I visited Universal studios in Orlando, Fla. 3. My aunt and I visited Universal Studios in Orlando, fl. 4. My aunt and I visited Universal Studios in Orlando, Fla.

  37. Generally, abbreviations are capitalized if the words they stand for are capitalized. Remember that two letter abbreviations without periods are used only when the ZIP code is included.

  38. Excellent! Generally, abbreviations are capitalized if the words they stand for are capitalized, but remember that two letter abbreviations without periods are used only when the ZIP code is included.

  39. Congratulations! You have now completed the capitalization diagnostic test. Please evaluate your results using the rules list that follows.

  40. Capitalization Rules . • Capitalize proper nouns and adjectives and do not capitalize school subjects, except language classes and course names that include a number. • Capitalize geographical names except when they indicate direction. • Capitalize a person’s title when it comes before the person’s name. Remember to check the rules in this list with the items that gave you trouble in the diagnostic .

  41. Capitalization Rules (continued) • Capitalize the first word of a quoted sentence. • Capitalize the names of persons and animals. Also, capitalize the first letter of initials that precede or follow names. • Capitalize the names of persons and animals. Also, capitalize the first letter of initials that precede or follow names Keep a list of the rules that are challenging for you.

  42. Capitalization Rules (continued) 6. Capitalize the names of historical events and periods, special events, and holidays and other calendar items. 7. Capitalize the names of nationalities, races, and people. Also, remember to capitalize the first and all important words in titles and subtitles. 8. Capitalize a word showing a family relationship when the word is used before or in place of the person’s name, unless the word is preceded by a possessive. Evaluation of your test results will help you identify where you need practice. Stick with it. Preparation will pay off.

  43. Capitalization Rules (continued) 9. Generally, abbreviations are capitalized if the words they stand for are capitalized. 10. Generally, abbreviations are capitalized if the words they stand for are capitalized. Remember that two letter abbreviations without periods are used only when the ZIP code is included. You’ve done it! Now you are ready to visit the OWL site for practice. Please return to the lesson on Moodle 2.

  44. Acknowledgements • This interactive PowerPoint was created by M. Southallwho is employed by Stafford County Public Schools • The summative test is from the following resource sanctioned by Stafford County Public Schools: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. (2004). One stop planner: Elements of language . United States of America. • All clip art and other graphic elements are found in Office 2007 and are the property of Microsoft Corporation