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Minerals. Definition. What is a mineral? There are 5 requirements:. naturally occurring Inorganic Solid crystal structure definite chemical composition . Properties of Minerals. Color Luster Streak Cleavage Hardness Specific Gravity Special Properties. Color What color(s) you see.

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What is a mineral? There are 5 requirements:

  • naturally occurring
  • Inorganic
  • Solid
  • crystal structure
  • definite chemical composition
properties of minerals
Properties of Minerals
  • Color
  • Luster
  • Streak
  • Cleavage
  • Hardness
  • Specific Gravity
  • Special Properties
color what color s you see
ColorWhat color(s) you see
  • Test
    • Observe surface of mineral
  • Impurities can change the color
  • Color can change with age and weathering
luster how light reflects off of it
LusterHow light reflects off of it
  • Test
    • Observe how mineral reflects light
  • Non-metal
    • Greasy
    • Pearly
    • Glassy
    • Dull (Earthy)
  • Metal
streak color when mineral is a powder
StreakColor when mineral is a powder
  • Test
    • Observe color of powder on unglazed ceramic tile
  • Rub mineral across ceramic tile and look at the line left behind.
cleavage or fracture how it breaks
Cleavage or FractureHow it breaks
  • Test
    • Break mineral apart to see if it splits along a flat surface
      • Flat surface break = cleavage
      • Uneven or Irregular break = fracture
hardness how strong is it
HardnessHow strong is it?
  • Test
    • Perform a scratch test
  • Use Moh's Hardness Scale
      • Harder minerals can scratch softer minerals
    • 1- talc- fingernail scratches it
    • 10-diamond- only other diamonds scratch it
specific gravity density compared to water
Specific GravityDensity compared to water
  • Test
    • Place in water, Density of water = 1 g/ml
      • Does it sink? More dense than water
      • Does it float? Less dense than water
special properties
Special Properties
  • Fluorescence
    • Does it glow under ultraviolet (UV) light?
  • Magnetism
    • Does it act as a magnet?
      • Magnitite
  • Radioactive
    • Does it have radioactive properties?
      • Uraninite
  • Chemical Reaction
    • Some minerals will give off CO2 when acid is placed on it.
two types of resources are renewable and non renewable
Two types of Resources are renewable and non-renewable
  • Minerals are a non-renewable resource!
non renewable resources
Non-Renewable Resources
  • Energy sources are considered nonrenewable if they cannot be replaced once they are used up. They are limited resources that we are extracting from the ground faster than it can replenish itself. Some examples include fossil fuels like coal, petroleum, natural gas, and propane. They are considered fossil fuels because they were formed from the buried remains of plants and animals that lived millions of years ago.
minerals are a non renewable resource
Minerals are a non-renewable resource.
  • Minerals like gold, silver, copper, gypsum, lead, zinc, iron, phosphate, limestone are mined from the ground in the United States and we are using them to make things that are a part of our daily lives. The geological processes that formed these mineral resources occurred many millions of years ago. As we continue to use up our mineral resources, they will be harder to find and more costly to develop.
renewable resources
Renewable Resources:
  • Resources that can be replenished naturally as they are used up. Some examples include:
  • Hydro power – from moving water
  • Solar power – from the Sun’s energy
  • Wind – from moving air
  • Geothermal – energy from heat within the Earth recovered as hot water or steam and used to heat buildings or generate electricity.
  • Wood – from trees