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Introduction to Film. Cinematography. Cinematography. Cinematography: "writing in movement” Everything that has to do with cameras and lenses, with film/film stock (and its digital equivalents), exposure and processing of film/digital images. Cinematography. Mise -en-scene. Cinematography.

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introduction to film

Introduction to Film

Cinematography

cinematography
Cinematography
  • Cinematography: "writing in movement”
  • Everything that has to do with cameras and lenses, with film/film stock (and its digital equivalents), exposure and processing of film/digital images.
cinematography1
Cinematography

Mise-en-scene

Cinematography

How it is filmed

Framing

Aspect Ratio

Film Stock

Camera Elements

Camera Angle

Camera Movement

Camera Position

Camera Lens

Exposure

  • What is filmed
    • Set Design
    • Color
    • Lighting
    • Actor’s Performances
    • Diegetic Sound
cinematography2
Cinematography

Other Issues

  • Digital Cinematography
    • Computer Generated Imagery (CGI) has brought changes in Cinematography, which was traditionally based on chemical/photographic images and effects.
  • Visual Special Effects
    • Often done in post-production (esp. digital effects).
  • Lighting
    • Since it is part of “what is filmed,” it is often seen as part of a film’s mise-en-scene. However, the cinematographer has significant input into lighting decisions.
  • Framing
    • As with lighting, framing involves the director and cinematographer.
framing
Framing
  • Angle, level, and distance of framing each shot
  • Offscreen space versus onsceen space
framing1
Framing

Extreme Wide Shot

Very Wide Shot

framing2
Framing

Wide Shot

Mid Shot

framing3
Framing

Medium Close Up

Close Up

framing4
Framing

Extreme Close Up

Cut-In

camera angle
Camera Angle
  • The angle between the camera and the subject.
height of camera
Height of Camera

Tokyo Story (1953)YasujiroOzu

aspect ratio
Aspect Ratio
  • Ratio of screen width to height
  • Classical Hollywood ratio (1.33:1)
  • Widescreen ratios (1.85:1, 2.35:1)
  • Video conversion
    • Pan-and-scan
    • Letterbox
aspect ratio1
Aspect Ratio

Rules of the Game, Jean Renoir, 1939

1.33:1 (4 to 3)

Aliens, James Cameron, 1986

1.85:1

Rebel Without A Cause, Nicholas Ray, 1955

2.35:1 (Cinemascope)

aspect ratio2
Aspect Ratio
  • Converting from film to TV.

2.2 to 1

Pan & Scan; 1.33 to 1

film stock
Film Stock
  • Selection enables cinematographer to control:
    • Color reproduction
    • Light sensitivity
    • Contrast levels
    • Sharpness
    • Grain and resolution
film stock1
Film Stock
  • Other Types
    • Kodachrome
    • Kinemacolor
    • Cinecolor
    • 35mm
    • 70mm
    • IMAX
  • Film stock deteriorates over time
camera lens
Camera Lens
  • Focal Length
    • The distance from the center of the lens to the point at which the light rays meet in sharp focus.
    • This length determines perspective relations and depth cues on the flat screen surface.
camera lens1
Camera Lens
  • Wide Angle
    • Short focal length (35 mm or less) which produces a wider angle of view
    • Effect: distorting straight lines, exaggerating depth
camera lens2
Camera Lens
  • Telephoto Lens
    • Lens with a long focal length (75mm or more).
    • Effect: collapse depth cues by enlarging distant planes and making them seem close to the foreground planes.
camera lens3
Camera Lens
  • Zoom lens
    • Lens with a focal length that can be changed during a shot.
    • Shift to telephoto range magnifies the image and flattens the space
    • Shift to wide-angle increases depth cues and demagnifies the background.
depth of field
Depth of Field
  • The range of distance within which objects can be photographed and remain in sharp focus.
    • Short focal length has greater depth of field.
    • Long focal length reduces depth of field.
camera movement
Camera Movement
  • Pan
    • Rotates horizontally, side to side
  • Tilt
    • Vertical pivot, up and down
  • Dolly, tracking, or traveling shots
  • Crane (and boom or jib) shots
  • Hand-held and steadicam shots
camera movement1
Camera Movement
  • Dolly, Tracking, Traveling shots: all basically the same.
  • “Tracking shot” came from the “tracks” that dollies moved on.
  • Traveling shot is generally reserved for movements taken from a vehicle.
camera movement2
Camera Movement
  • Boom/jib shots
    • Camera mounted on counterweighted boom; some booms can also telescope in or out.
    • Can use for combinations of pans & tilts, horizontal, vertical or diagonal moves.
  • Crane shots
    • Shots look the same as boom shot, but often motorized or with hydraulics for movement.
camera movement3
Camera Movement
  • Hand-held shots
    • Can pan or tilt or track
    • Hand-held movement is obviously “unsteady”--which is how we know it’s a hand-held shot.
  • Steadicam
    • A device which dampens unsteadiness, producing a relatively smooth movement, even when walking or running.
    • Steadicam first used in Rocky (1976)
cinematography3
Cinematography
  • Putting it all together with story boarding.
  • Example: The Lord of the Rings