soil moisture behavior n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Soil Moisture Behavior PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Soil Moisture Behavior

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 20

Soil Moisture Behavior - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Download Presentation
Soil Moisture Behavior
An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Soil Moisture Behavior

  2. Why is water important to plants? • it is a nutrient • serves as a solvent for other nutrients

  3. What are the water requirements for plants? • plants use several hundred pounds of water for each pound of dry matter produced

  4. How does water enter the soil? • through pores in the soil • sandy soils have the largest pores, but are often filled with other material • medium textured soils (loamy) have good water entry properties • clays, pores swell shut when they get wet

  5. What is Adhesion? • it is the attraction of two different molecules (water to soil) • Water held by adhesion = not available to the plant

  6. What is Cohesion? • it is the attraction of two similar molecules (water to water) • Water held by cohesion = IS available to plant

  7. What is the importance of adhesion and cohesion in soils? • water molecules are strongly attracted to soil minerals and organic materials due to adhesion • water molecules are also strongly attracted to each other due to cohesion • soil holds a thin layer of water, that layer holds a thin layer of water etc., the farther away from the soil particle you get, the looser the water is held

  8. What is the importance of adhesion and cohesion in soils? • water then tends to move from wetter places to drier places. Roots remove water, then water is drawn from surrounding areas • in dry conditions, water moves slowly and only fractions of an inch, thus roots must be well distributed

  9. How is soil water classified? 1) Hygroscopic Water is held so strongly by the soil particles (adhesion), that it is not available to the plants 2) Capillary Water is held by cohesive forces greater than gravity and is available to plants 3) Gravitational Water is that water which cannot be held against gravity • as water is pulled down through the soil, nutrients are"leached" out of the soil (nitrogen)

  10. What is Field Capacity? • when the soil contains the maximum amount of available water, the greatest amount of water it can hold against gravity

  11. What is Wilting Point? • the soil has so little water, that plants can no longer recover from wilting • roots can no longer take in water

  12. What is Available Water? • the amount of water between field capacity and wilting point

  13. What is Water Table? • the level beneath the soil which the soil is saturated with water • marshes develop where the water table is just below the ground surface • if the water table is not too low, dryness tends to correct itself through capillary movement

  14. What is saturation? • When all pore spaces are filled with water • Unhealthy state for plants when prolonged because the oxygen dissolved in the water that is needed for respiration is quickly utilized

  15. What affect does soil particle size have on its water holding ability? • the smaller the individual particles are, the more surface area there is, thus it will hold more water • consider a book compared to all of its pages

  16. How is soil moisture measured? • soil is weighed dry, then wet (expressed as a percent of dry wt) • electrical conductivity

  17. What factors determine the amount of soil moisture? • amount of snow, rain, irrigation • rate which soil permits water entry • water storage capacity of soil • evaporation rate • height of water table • rate which water can move within the soil • amount and type of vegetation

  18. How can we increase the amount of available water to the plant? • Precipitation: better utilize snow and rain by keeping the water on the soil surface. • windbreaks • keep snow in place (cover) • strip cropping • contour strips • grassland farming • Irrigation: may not be practical • Water entry: reduce cultivation, green manures, correct alkaline soils

  19. How can we increase the amount of available water to the plant? • Storage capacity: increase O.M. (manures) • Evaporation: conservation tillage, shelter belts, strip cropping • Water movement in soil: O.M. • Vegetative covering: holds water

  20. How much water do plants need? • Transpiration Ratio: pounds of water to produce a pound of dry matter. • Corn = 350# Wheat = 500# • Potato = 630# Grass & Alfalfa = 860# • It takes 4,533 gallons of water to produce enough food for one person for 3 meals. (That's 1,654,545 gallons per year) • It takes 10,000 gallons of water to make one bushel of wheat • It takes 7.35" of rain to make a 20 bushel per acre crop.