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EROS (Crave & Davy, 2001). “Stochastic model of erosion–sedimentation processes, based on cellular automata, which mimics the natural variability of climatic events with deterministic transport processes”. + Very simple concept: model based on water flux conservation and mass balance

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slide1

EROS

(Crave & Davy, 2001)

“Stochastic model of erosion–sedimentation processes, based on cellular automata, which

mimics the natural variability of climatic events with deterministic transport processes”

+ Very simple concept: model based on water flux conservation and mass balance

+ Not rigid: properties such as channel geometry emerge from the action of stochastic processes

+ Produces realistic discharge patterns and fluvial network morphologies

- Landscape evolution is driven primarily by sediment transport  “transport-limited”

- It is somehow difficult to relate the model parameters to measurable quantities

slide2

CHILD

(Tucker at al., 2001)

+ User friendly

+ Includes a wide range of fluvial incision laws and tectonic scenarios

+ Uses a Triangulated Irregular Network

+ Stochastic rainfall variability

- No landsliding algorithm

- Some properties are relatively rigid, e.g. channel geometry defined by hydraulic scaling relationships

slide3

CHILD

(Tucker at al., 2001)

Uplift rate increased 1 Ma ago

Example 1: landscape response to tectonic perturbation; application to the Central Apennines, Italy (Attal et al., 2008)

slide4

CHILD

(Tucker at al., 2001)

Example 1: landscape response to tectonic perturbation; application to the Central Apennines, Italy (Attal et al., 2008)

slide5

Profile shape and landscape morphology

Example 1: landscape response to tectonic perturbation; application to the Central Apennines, Italy (Attal et al., 2008)

Fiamignano

Fault

Time = 0.0 My

Questions: can we reproduce the catchments’ morphology using a simple detachment-limited fluvial erosion law (model testing)? What is the effect of “dynamic channel adjustment” (sensitivity analysis)?

Fault

Uplift

slide6

Profile shape and landscape morphology

Example 1: landscape response to tectonic perturbation; application to the Central Apennines, Italy (Attal et al., 2008)

Time = 0.2 My

slide7

Profile shape and landscape morphology

Example 1: landscape response to tectonic perturbation; application to the Central Apennines, Italy (Attal et al., 2008)

Time = 0.4 My

slide8

Profile shape and landscape morphology

Example 1: landscape response to tectonic perturbation; application to the Central Apennines, Italy (Attal et al., 2008)

Time = 0.6 My

slide9

Profile shape and landscape morphology

Example 1: landscape response to tectonic perturbation; application to the Central Apennines, Italy (Attal et al., 2008)

Time = 0.8 My

slide10

Profile shape and landscape morphology

Example 1: landscape response to tectonic perturbation; application to the Central Apennines, Italy (Attal et al., 2008)

Time = 1.0 My

slide11

Profile shape and landscape morphology

Example 1: landscape response to tectonic perturbation; application to the Central Apennines, Italy (Attal et al., 2008)

Time = 1.2 My

slide12

Profile shape and landscape morphology

Example 1: landscape response to tectonic perturbation; application to the Central Apennines, Italy (Attal et al., 2008)

Time = 1.4 My

slide13

Profile shape and landscape morphology

Basin internally drained

Example 1: landscape response to tectonic perturbation; application to the Central Apennines, Italy (Attal et al., 2008)

Time = 1.6 My

Slope < 0

slide14

Profile shape and landscape morphology

Basin internally drained

Example 1: landscape response to tectonic perturbation; application to the Central Apennines, Italy (Attal et al., 2008)

Time = 1.8 My

Slope < 0

slide15

Profile shape and landscape morphology

Basin internally drained

Example 1: landscape response to tectonic perturbation; application to the Central Apennines, Italy (Attal et al., 2008)

Time = 2.0 My

Slope < 0

slide16

Profile shape and landscape morphology

Basin internally drained

Example 1: landscape response to tectonic perturbation; application to the Central Apennines, Italy (Attal et al., 2008)

Time = 2.2 My

  • Simple DL model makes relatively good predictions.
  • Role of CHANNEL NARROWING (morphology + response time)

Slope < 0

slide17

CHILD

(Tucker at al., 2001)

No vegetation

Example 2 (sensitivity analysis): effect of vegetation and wildfires on landscape development; application to the Oregon Coast Range (Istanbulluoglu & Bras, 2005)

 Vegetation cover and changes in cover through time (landslides, wild fires) strongly affects landscape morphology (relief, drainage density)

Static vegetation cover

(Roering et al., 1999)

slide18

Modelling landscape evolution

Where are we?

Models are getting more and more complex, include more and more processes and parameters, but…

Some essential key issues need to be addressed:

 Role of sediment (fluvial erosion),

 Role of “life” (vegetation, bioturbation, etc.),

 Role of climate

slide19

http://coastalchange.ucsd.edu/

Climate and landscape evolution

 Climate is highly variable at geological time scales

 Climate (e.g. temperature, rainfall, storminess) strongly influences erosion rates and processes

Hillslopes: landsliding, freeze-thaw cycles

Rivers:

erosion occurs during discrete events = floods which mobilize sediments

slide20

http://www.cru.uea.ac.uk/cru/info/

Climatic Research Unit, UEA Norwich

Climate and landscape evolution

Problem: most studies involving landscape evolution modelling assume that climate parameters are constant over millions of years!

Solution: coupling landscape evolution models with climate models

Problem: SCALE!!!

LANDSCAPE EVO. MODELS

TIME STEP = 10s hours to 1000s year

GRID RESOLUTION = 10s to 1000s meters

CLIMATE MODELS

TIME STEP = 15 minutes to a few hours

MIN GRID RESOLUTION = 100 km!

slide21

Vision for the future?

The aim:

  • Solving the scale problems to couple climate and landscape development models
  • realistic predictions of landscape evolution as a result of climate variability + feedbacks between topography and climate
  • predictions at varied time and space scales (from minutes to millions of years, from a small stream to whole countries!)

http://www.cru.uea.ac.uk/cru/info/

Climatic Research Unit, UEA Norwich

slide22

Tectonics

The Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD) model (Tucker et al., 2001)

PAUSE

Climate parameters

Hillslope transport + landslide threshold

Initial topography

Fluvial sediment transport + deposition + bedrock erosion

Additional parameters and algorithms: fluvial hydraulic geometry, bedrock and sediment characteristics, role of vegetation, etc.

CHILD

slide23

The Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD) model (Tucker et al., 2001)

slide24

The Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD) model (Tucker et al., 2001)

slide25

The Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD) model (Tucker et al., 2001)

slide26

The Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD) model (Tucker et al., 2001)

slide27

The Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD) model (Tucker et al., 2001)

slide30

The Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD) model (Tucker et al., 2001)

slide31

The Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD) model (Tucker et al., 2001)

If OPTDETACHLIM = 1

 E = KAmSn

slide32

The Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD) model (Tucker et al., 2001)

To set in the .in file

τ = ktqmbSnb = kt(Q/W)mbSnb

Calculated by CHILD

We will consider:

Erosion  Specific Stream power (Law 2):

E  Ω/ W E = K Q S / W

 mb = 0.6; nb = 0.7; pb = 1.5; τc = 0

To set in the .in file

E = kb (τ – τc)pb

kt = 1197 (typical value for bedrock rivers)

kb or kr = poorly constrained parameters

slide33

The Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD) model (Tucker et al., 2001)

slide34

The Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD) model (Tucker et al., 2001)

slide35

The Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD) model (Tucker et al., 2001)

CHILD user guide

slide36

The Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD) model (Tucker et al., 2001)

Channel Width is calculated at each time step for every node:

W = kwQωsQb(ωb-ωs) = kwQωs if ωs = ωb

slide37

The Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD) model (Tucker et al., 2001)

slide38

Visualizing the output using Matlab

ctrisurf(‘filename’, ts, 0)