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Nutrition for Health and Performance. Mark Watsford Human Movement Department University of Technology, Sydney. ENERGY. WARNING: Extremely complex mathematical formula coming up…. ENERGY intake = ENERGY expended. “Energy balance” Intake > expenditure = weight gain

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nutrition for health and performance

Nutrition for Health and Performance

Mark Watsford

Human Movement Department

University of Technology, Sydney

energy
ENERGY

WARNING: Extremely complex mathematical formula coming up…

ENERGYintake = ENERGYexpended

“Energy balance”

Intake > expenditure = weight gain

Intake < expenditure = weight loss

  • Athletes require more energy than the general population
macronutrients
MACRONUTRIENTS
  • Carbohydrate
    • Cereals, pasta, bread, lollies, sugar,
    • Useful for energy production
    • Need before, (during) and after competition
  • Protein
    • Red meat, eggs, chicken, beans
    • Essential for muscle repair
  • Fat
    • Nuts, butter, oil, peanut butter, fast food, (dairy)
    • Cell development
    • Need some fat in diet, but minimal saturated fat
food guide a healthy diet
FOOD GUIDE - A HEALTHY DIET

1. Carbohydrate 50-65%

2. Fat <30%

3. Protein 10-15%

4. Alcohol <5%

athlete diet
ATHLETE DIET

1. Carbohydrate 60-70% 55%

2. Fat <25% <30%

3. Protein 10-15% 15-20%

4. Alcohol <2% <2%

Non-Endurance

Endurance

slide6
Why are CHO’s so important for team sports?
  • Fuel source
  • CNS/brain function
energy systems
Energy systems
  • ATP-PC – ATP production via breakdown of Phosphocreatine (<10sec)
  • Anaerobic Glycolysis – ATP production via breakdown of glucose in the absence of Oxygen (30 sec – 2 min)
  • Aerobic system – ATP production from glucose or fat in the presence of Oxygen (>3 min)

WHAT IS IMPORTANT FOR SOCCER?

slide9
Are all carbohydrates created equally??

High GI carbohydrates

  • High in refined sugar = quick energy burst
  • Fine before, during & after game/training
  • Long term intake associated with diabetes
  • Examples: white bread, sweets, cordials

Low GI carbohydrates

  • Unrefined CHO = slow/sustained energy release
  • High in fibre, vitamins & minerals
  • More satisfying – reduce chances of ‘snacking’
  • Examples: Whole grain breads/cereals, brown/basmati rice, fresh vegetables
guidelines for dietary intakes
Guidelines for dietary intakes
  • Carbohydrate
    • Sedentary adult ~3g/kg BW
    • Endurance athlete undertaking heavy training program ~8g/kg BW
    • Adolescent athlete ~5-6g/kg BW
  • Protein
    • Sedentary adult 0.8g/kg BW
    • Endurance athlete undertaking heavy training program 1.2-1.6g/kg BW
    • Strength athlete undertaking heavy training program 1.2-1.7g/kg BW
    • Adolescent athlete 2.0g/kg BW
foods providing approximately 10g of protein
Foods providing approximately 10g of protein
  • 2 small eggs
  • 30g reduced fat cheese
  • 70g cottage cheese
  • 250ml reduced fat milk or soy milk
  • 35g cooked lean beef, lamb, pork
  • 40g cooked lean chicken
  • 50g grilled fish/ 50g canned tuna or salmon
  • 200g reduced fat yoghurt
  • 4 slices wholemeal bread
  • 3 cups wholegrain cereal
  • 2 cups cooked pasta or 3 cups cooked rice
dehydration performance1
Dehydration & Performance
  • Important to drink before and during exercise
      • Don’t wait until thirsty! = already dehydrated
      • Use cool, flavoured liquids to encourage intake
      • Drink plenty of fluid following exercise
  • Implications for core body temperature
  • This is the ONE time sports drinks are useful
      • Contain carbohydrates & electrolytes (salt)
  • Soccer research example (McGregor et al, 1999)
      • 90 minutes of intermittent exercise (simulated soccer game)
      • soccer specific skills tested before and after
      • Ingestion of H2O before and every 15 min = no drop-off in skills
      • No fluid = substantial performance drop-off
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