11/1/12 • What is the first thing that comes to mind when thinking about art? • What is your favorite movie? • What is your favorite book? • What is your favorite song? • Why are you as an individual important? • What might cause you to get more interested in learning?
The Late Middle Ages in Europe (1000-1300 C.E) • Food supply increased • Switch to horsepower • Three-Field System • Population increased • Towns and cities grew • Trade increased as a result of the Crusades • Growth of education • Contact with Byzantines and Muslims
The Commercial Revolution & the Rise of the Merchant Class • Guilds-group of individuals in the same business working to improve work conditions. • Trade increased and people got wealthy & powerful-merchants • Expansion of trade + business= Commercial Revolution • Trade Fairs • The rise of banking
The Rise of the Renaissance • The end of the Middle Ages and Feudalism • Bubonic Plague • Hundred Years War • Survivors wanted to celebrate! • Trade in the northern Italy made ideas spread quickly • Many powerful merchants, like the MediciFamily (bankers) in Florence, Italy, bought this art. • Church leaders did the same • Art-looked to beautify ancient Rome and Greece • Renaissance-revival of art and learning which began in northern Italy
The Renaissance Begins in Italy • As plague sacked most European cities, some cities remained strong because of trade. • Florence, Italy (wealthiest) • Wealthy Merchant Class • Medici Family (bankers) • Classical heritage of Rome and Greece • Many of the greatest artists and writers came from Italy
The Rise of Humanism • As people studied the classics of Greece and Rome, this led to Humanism. • Humanism-intellectual movement focusing on human potential • Led away from the Church • People became more secular, or worldly. • The Renaissance Man-man who mastered every area of study
Renaissance Art • Art changed • More realistic • Greek and Roman subjects • Perspective-technique showing 3 dimensions on a flat surface. • Human body used often • Flemish Painting became popular in Northern Europe
Renaissance Writing • Started to write in the vernacular (native language) instead of just Latin • Dante was the first to write in the vernacular in TheDivine Comedy. • Writing was more secular-not religious • Human individuality and emotion (Humanism) • Erasmus (Christian Humanist)-In Praise and Folly depicts love and human emotion, and makes fun of certain people in society. Midway upon the journey of our lifeI found myself within a forest dark,For the straightforward pathway had been lost. Ah me! how hard a thing it is to sayWhat was this forest savage, rough, and stern,Which in the very thought renews the fear. So bitter is it, death is little more;But of the good to treat, which there I found,Speak will I of the other things I saw there. Dante’s Inferno from The Divine Comedy And next these come those that commonly call themselves the religious andmonks, most false in both titles, when both a great part of them arefarthest from religion…(I P & F).
The Renaissance Spreads North • Petrarch-Father of Humanism-sonnets to Laura • Machiavelli-The Prince about leaders, government, and control • Thomas More-Utopia about a perfect society (Christian Humanist) • William Shakespeare-Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, Macbeth, Othello, etc.