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Literary Elements. Genre, story elements, etc. Remember. Fiction

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literary elements

Literary Elements

Genre, story elements, etc.

Remember . . .


These are stories that are NOT real! They are made-up. Can include fairytales, folktales, fables, myths, tall tales, realistic fiction, science fiction, fantasy, and historical fiction!

  • Plot is the sequence of events that occur in a narrative. A narrative is any work that tells a story, such as a short story, a novel, a drama, or a narrative poem.
diagram of plot
Diagram of Plot


Falling Action

Rising Action/ Wanted To




Introduces the Setting

Introduces the Characters






How an author creates a character – can be direct or indirect

Appearance, dialogue, actions, descriptions, motivations, etc.

  • Time and place; Can include dialects, scenery, customs, time period, clothing, weather, time of day/year.
  • The setting helps: create mood, show a reader a different way of life, or make the action seem more real.
  • The setting can also be the source of conflict and can be a symbol for something else.
rising action the conflict develops
Rising Action – the conflict develops

External Conflict

Internal Conflict

A struggle within a character.

I can’t decide whether or not to go out with Bobby. He’s super cute, but kind of has a dud personality. Oh goodness, what is a girl to do?

  • Struggle against an opposing force:
    • Person vs. Person
      • Mr. Carlos and Ms. Oleksiak are arguing
    • Person vs. Nature
      • Ms. Oleksiak is swept away during a flash flood.
    • Person vs. Beast
      • Ms. Oleksiak is mauled by a wild turkey.
  • The turning point of the story.
  • The point of highest suspense or tension.
  • Example: Romeo kills Tybalt, Juliet’s cousin. If he hadn’t killed Tybalt, the original plan that would allow Romeo and Juliet to be together may have worked.
falling action
Falling Action
  • The conflict is close to being resolved and the action of the story is coming to an end.
  • Example: The glass slipper fits Cinderella.
  • The conflict is resolved, the story ends (unless of course, the author wants an ending that is open to interpretation).
  • Example: Romeo and Juliet die.
special techniques of plot
Special Techniques of Plot
  • Suspense- excitement or tension
  • Foreshadowing- hint or clue about what will happen in story
  • Flashback- interrupts the normal sequence of events to tell about something that happened in the past
  • Surprise Ending/Irony- conclusion that reader does not expect
  • A central message, concern, or insight into life expressed through a literary work
  • Can be expressed by one or two sentence statement about human beings or about life
  • May be stated directly or implied
  • Interpretation uncovers the theme
example of theme
Example of Theme

Recurring vs. Universal

Some Examples:

The Outsiders – Bridging the gap between the rich and the poor.

The Giver – The importance of the individual.

Love is able to break through all barriers.

  • Recurring – a theme specific to a particular time period.
  • Universal – a theme relevant to all.