Alister McGrath, Christian Theology: An Introduction. Chapter 17 Christianity and the World Religions. Introduction Increased attention to the question of other religions Western colonial expansion Immigration to the west Western Pluralism and the Question of Other Religions
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Alister McGrath, Christian Theology: An Introduction Chapter 17 Christianity and the World Religions Wiley-Blackwell 2010
Introduction • Increased attention to the question of other religions • Western colonial expansion • Immigration to the west Western Pluralism and the Question of Other Religions • The detached approach • Anthony Gidden, Sociology • A committed approach Wiley-Blackwell 2010
Approaches to Religions • The Enlightenment: religions as a corruption of the original religion of nature • Religion as superstition • Ludwig Feuerbach: religion as an objectification of human feeling • Human consciousness of feelings • Awareness of God = misunderstood self-awareness • Karl Marx: religion as the product of socioeconomic alienation • Religion results from social and economic conditions • Changing these conditions will remove the causes of religion, and thus eliminate religion itself • Sigmund Freud: religion as wish-fulfillment • Human need for a father-figure Wiley-Blackwell 2010
Emile Durkheim: religion and ritual • Totemism and the worship of society • Religions as providing social cohesion • Mircea Eliade: religion and myth • “the sacred” • Myths • Karl Barth and Dietrich Bonhoeffer: religion as a human invention • Karl Barth • Discontinuity between God’s self-revelation and humanity’s search for God (religion) • Religion as human construct, but necessary support to faith • Dietrich Bonhoeffer • Religionless Christianity • The newly secular world • Trinitarian theologies of religion • Raimundo Panikkar • Jacques Dupuis • Gavin D’Costa Wiley-Blackwell 2010
Christian Approaches to Other Religions • Exclusivism • Hendrik Kraemer (1888-1965) • Karl Barth (1886-1968) • Stephen C. Neill (1900-84) • Lesslie Newbigin (1909-98) • Inclusivism • The “fulfillment” model • Jean Daniélou (1905-74) • Karl Rahner (1904-84) • Anonymous Christians • Second Vatican Council • Evangelicalism • Clark Pinnock (b.1937) Wiley-Blackwell 2010
Parallelism • A variation of inclusivism • Joseph DiNoia • Mark Heim • Multiple salvations; plurality of absolutes • Pluralism • Ultimate spiritual reality behind all religions • John Hick • God (“the Real”) as universally accessible • Theocentric rather than christocentric approach • Gavin D’Costa’s critique • Basis in western liberal modernity Wiley-Blackwell 2010