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Sharks. Classification. Kingdom Animalia Phylum _____________ Class _____________ Subclass _____________ Superorder _____________ Known as “__________” until the 16 th century Name “shark” may have come from the Yucatec Maya. Evolution. Earliest sharks evolved _________ years ago

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Sharks


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classification
Classification
  • Kingdom Animalia
    • Phylum _____________
      • Class _____________
        • Subclass _____________
          • Superorder _____________
  • Known as “__________” until the 16th century
    • Name “shark” may have come from the Yucatec Maya
evolution
Evolution
  • Earliest sharks evolved _________ years ago
  • Today – _________ species
    • Smallest – dwarf lanternshark (7 in)
    • Largest – whale shark (largest fish – 40 ft)
skeleton
Skeleton
  • No bones
    • Use cartilage and connective tissue
      • Strong , but ___ the __________ of bone
        • Reduces weight  saves energy
    • Cartilage may be _____________
      • “bone-like”
    • No functional _____________
      • Must stay in water
slide6
Jaw
  • Covered in a layer of _____________
    • Complex ________ surface
      • Single tile in a mosiac
    • Tiny hexagonal plates
      • Crystal blocks of _____________
    • Most sharks have one layer of tesserae
      • Great white sharks – up to _____________
teeth
Teeth
  • Embedded into _____ rather than the jaw
  • Arranged into _____ rows of ______ teeth
    • Continuously replaced
      • Gums “_____________” them to the front
      • Can shed ____________ teeth in a lifetime
  • Tooth characteristics determined by _______
  • Very important to fossil record – all that remains
slide10
Fins
  • Supported by unsegmented _____ composed of _____________
tail caudal fins
Tail (Caudal) Fins
  • ____ different designs found in sharks
    • Shapes evolved due to different _________ and _____________
    • All are _____________ in design
      • Top is _______ than the bottom
buoyancy
Buoyancy
  • ____ swim bladder
  • Large _____________
    • Up to _____ of body mass
    • Contain _____________
      • Oil that is _____________ that water
      • Sharks hunted for this oil
        • Put in capsules as a health supplement
        • Used in vaccines
        • Also available from plant sources
respiration
Respiration
  • Oxygen removed as water passes through the mouth and over the _____________
    • Process known as _____________
      • Most sharks can pump water over their gills while at rest
        • Some cannot (obligate ram ventilators)
    • Gills _______ covered (as with most fish)
circulation
Circulation
  • Sharks have a ______ chambered heart
slide16
_________________
  • Most sharks are _________________ (cold blooded)
    • Body temp is that of the environment
  • Family Lamnidae sharks can raise their body temp higher than the water temp (includes mako and great white)
    • _____________
    • Strip of red muscle in center of body attached to the __________________ (miraculous net)
rete mirabile
Rete Mirabile
  • Uses ___________________ flow design
slide18
_____________
  • Living in salt water
    • Large production of _____
    • Shark’s tissues ________________ (in balance with) the sea water
  • So, few sharks can live in fresh water
    • Bull sharks can change their kidney function to ____________________________
senses smell
Senses – Smell
  • Very keen ________ sense
    • Can detect __________ of blood in sea water
    • Even greater attraction to chemicals found in _________ of organisms
      • Leads sharks to sewage outfalls
senses sight
Senses – Sight
  • Eyes similar to most vertebrates
    • Well adapted to the dark marine environment
      • Use a _______________ (bright tapestry)
        • Reflects light back through the retina to increase amount of useable light
        • Humans do the same (_____________ in a photo)
        • Can _____________ and _____________ their pupils
senses sight1
Senses – Sight
  • Sharks have eyelids, but _____________
    • Water cleanses eyes
  • Use __________________________
    • _______________ that moves over eyes to protect them during ___________ on prey
senses hearing
Senses – Hearing
  • May be able to hear prey ____________ away
    • Hard to test
  • Small opening on each side of the head
    • Leads to the inner ear
  • Sense _________________ among the water molecules
senses hearing1
Senses – Hearing
  • _____________ system
    • System of _________ within the lateral line
      • Runs the length of the body
      • ___________ expose water to the system
      • Contains ____________ cells with hair-like projections
      • Also helps with ________ and movement
senses
Senses – _____________
  • Sharks can detect electromagnetic fields produced by all living organisms
    • Sharks have the _____________ electrical sensitivity of any organism
    • Helps them find prey (even under the sand)
    • Use ____________________________
      • Electrorecptor organs
        • Hundreds to thousands per shark
senses electroreception
Senses – Electroreception
  • Ocean currents travel through the magnetic field of the earth
    • Creates electric fields
      • May allow sharks to _____________ the world’s oceans
  • Allows sharks to detect _____________

__________________