Pre-Operative Check List • Purpose: Correct patient Correct surgeon Correct procedure Correct location
Patient Identification Verbally ID bracelet Reviewed Nursing history Assessment History and Physical NPO since… MD orders Consent Site/Procedure verified Metal pins, plates, joints The Pre-Op Check ListProcess
Allergies foods, medications, latex, other Personal items removed Lab values Diagnostic Imaging Electrodiagnostic Studies The Pre-op Check ListContinued
Laboratory ValuesSerum/Blood • CBC (complete blood count) • Red blood cells (erythrocytes - RBC) RBC levels: male 4.3 - 5.9 female 3.5 - 5 • Cells that deliver oxygen throughout the body and make blood look red. • A low RBC can indicate anemia, which can lead to fatigue. • A high RBC may indicate congenital heart disease, dehydration, obstructive lung disease, or bone marrow over-production.
WBC 5,000 - 10,000 White blood cell: One of the cells the body makes to help fight infections. A low WBC is called leukopenia (decrease in the number of these cells can place patients at increased risk for infection) A high WBC is termed leukocytosis (very common in acutely ill patients.) Although it may be a sign of illness, leukocytosis in-and-of itself is not a disorder, nor is it a disease.
Hgb (hemoglobin) substance inside red blood cells that binds to oxygen and carries it from the lungs to the tissues. male 13.5 - 18 female 11.5 - 15.5 Hct (hematocrit) measures how much space in the blood is occupied by red blood cells. male 40 - 52% female 35 - 46% Plt (platelets) cells found in the blood that are needed to control bleeding 130 – 400
Laboratory Values Continued • PT (prothrombin time) is a blood test that measures how long it takes blood to clot. 10 – 15 seconds in a normal adult • PTT (partial thromboplastin time) Partial thromboplastin time (PTT) is a blood test that looks at how long it takes for blood to clot. It can help tell if you have bleeding or clotting problems. If the person is taking blood thinners, clotting takes up to two and a half times longer. 60 – 70 seconds in a normal adult
I hear INR instead…. • You will also here the term INR. INR =‘s • International Normalized Ratio. • Since PT and INR (PT/INR) evaluate the ability of blood to clot properly, they can be used to assess both bleeding and clotting tendencies. One common use is to monitor the effectiveness of blood thinning drugs such as Warfarin (Coumadin).
INR levels • Patients on anti-coagulant drugs should have an INR of 2.0 to 3.0 for basic “blood-thinning” needs. For some patients who have a high risk of clot formation, the INR needs to be higher - about 2.5 to 3.5. • Range usually is between 0.8 and 1.2. Normal is 1 whereas 3 would mean it takes 3 times as long as normal to clot. • If you hear your patients INR is above this range, your case may be canceled, postponed or cell saver may be called.
If you must do your case and INR is too high….. • Can give the patient FFP (Fresh Frozen Plasma) aka thawed plasma which is the plasma taken from a unit of whole blood. • Plasma transfusion is indicated in patients with documented coagulation factor deficiencies and active bleeding, or who are about to undergo an invasive procedure. • Can also give Vitamin K (not potassium) as a reversal agent. • Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin. The vitamin K present in plant foods is called phylloquinone; while the form of the vitamin present in animal foods is called menaquinone. Both of these vitamins are absorbed from the diet and converted to an active form called dihydrovitamin K.
Laboratory Values Continued • Blood Chemistry K+ 3.5 – 5.0 • Potassium to high =‘s Hyperkalemia which can be fatal because it can cause cardiac arrest or kidney failure. • Potassium to low =‘s Hypokalemia - you can become weak as cellular processes are impaired, muscles would not move, heart would not beat. • The kidney is the main organ that controls the balance of potassium. It removes excess potassium into the urine.
Na+ 135 – 145 High sodium levels =‘s Hypernatremia. Symptoms = lethargy, weakness, irritability, and edema. With more severe elevations of the sodium level, seizures and coma may occur. Low sodium levels =‘s Hyponatremia ( aka water intoxication) . Symptoms = nausea, vomiting, headache and malaise. As the hyponatremia worsens, confusion, diminished reflexes, convulsions, stupor or coma may occur.
Type & Crossmatch Type- blood type (A, B, AB, O) and Rh factor (positive or negative) Crossmatch- determines compatibility of donor with recipient’s blood
Laboratory Values ContinuedUrine • UA (urinalysis) color clarity odor glucose RBC WBC
Diagnostic Imaging • X-Rays • Identify abnormalities or foreign bodies • Find lost needle, sponge, instrument • Visualize fluid or air in cavities such as the plural cavity or peritoneal cavity • Assist with broken bone realignment • Assist with implantation of prosthetics • Identify correct placement of catheters, drains, or tubes
Diagnostic Imaging Continued • Portable X-Ray equipment needed in the OR • A cassette will be placed under or beside the area to be x-rayed • Will be taken to radiology department and read by a doctor of radiology
Diagnostic Imaging Continued • Fluoroscopy • portable C-arm X-ray machine with a monitor screen • allows for visualization of areas being x-rayed by the surgeon as a procedure is being done with the use of a contrast dye • Examples: ortho, neuro, vascular procedures, cholangiograms, and urography
Diagnostic Studies For Vascular and Heart Surgeries • Angiography • Stress Test • Cardiac Catheterization • Echocardiography
Electrodiagnostic Studies • EKG or ECG (electrocardiogram)-monitors and evaluates normal and abnormal heart rhythm as well as how well the heart is functioning • EEG (electoencephalogram)-monitors and evaluates brain activity
Abdominal Divisions • Anatomy of the Abdomen RUQ (right upper quadrant) contents: liver gallbladder duodenum head of pancreas right kidney and adrenal part of ascending and transverse colon
Anatomy of Abdomen Continued • LUQ (left upper quadrant) contents: stomach spleen left lobe of liver body of pancreas left kidney and adrenal part of transverse and descending colon
Anatomy of Abdomen Continued • RLQ (right lower quadrant) contents: cecum appendix right ovary and fallopian tube right ureter right spermatic cord
Anatomy of Abdomen Continued • LLQ (left lower quadrant) contents: part of descending colon sigmoid colon left ovary and fallopian tube left ureter left spermatic cord
Anatomy of Abdomen Continued • Midline of Abdomen: Aorta Uterus Bladder
Anatomy of the Abdominal Wall • Subcuticular (skin) • Subcutaneous (fatty/adipose layer) • Anterior fascia (thin or thick membrane over the muscle) • Muscle • Posterior fascia (thin or thick membrane under the muscle) • Peritoneum (shiny membrane covering the abdominal cavity) • Contents of abdominal cavity (organs)
Procedure for Opening Abdominal Cavity • Skin incised • Blood vessels cauterized • Fascia incised • Muscle layers divided or separated • Fascia incised • Peritoneum incised • Abdominal cavity contents exposed
Abdominal Incision Type Considerations • Surgeon selects incision that will best expose the structure to be operated on • Surgeon selects incision that will create minimal trauma and post-operative pain • Surgeon selects incision that will allow for wound closure strength as closed by primary wound healing
Abdominal Incision Types • Right Subcostal gallbladder, biliary system • Left Subcostal spleen • Median Upper Abdominal stomach, duodenum, pancreas • Median Lower Abdominal uterus, adnexa (ovaries, fallopian tubes), bladder
Abdominal Incision Types • Right Upper Paramedian stomach, duodenum, pancreas • Left Lower Paramedian pelvic structures, colon • McBurney appendix • Left Oblique Inguinal hernia repair • Lower Transverse (Pfannensteil) uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes
Laparoscopy • Port-Sites Hernia Appendectomy Bowel Resection • Equipment/Room-Set-Up
Anticipating Potential Problems With Abdominal Surgery • Any time you are cutting into the body there is a risk of something being cut that was not meant to be cut • Depending on what structure is accidentally cut into, will determine what is needed by the surgical technologist • Vascular structures will require sutures that are non-absorbable such as silk, prolene or ticron on a taper needle • Other structures can often be repaired with chromic, vicryl or dexon on a taper needle
Nursing Process • Surgery is an on-going process of assessment of needs, plan of action, intervention or implementation of the plan, and evaluation to determine what could be done to better prepare next time
Reviewing the Chart Pre-op Check List History and Physical Laboratory Values Diagnostic Tests Abdominal Incisions Anatomy of Abdomen Anatomy of Abdominal Wall Abdominal Incisions Laparoscopy Anticipation of Potential Problems Summary