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The Teberda Biosphere ReserveТебердинский заповедникПроект разработал Тантлевский Никита , ученик 11 «Б» класса Элективный курс «Гид- переводчик» руководитель : Лысенко Н.А
There is a corner of the Caucasus, where the high, forested mountains and emeraldmeadows, snowy peaks, raging rapid rivers, fantastically beautiful mountain lakes,waterfalls, pearl strings, lush vegetation and diverse fauna constitute a veritable museumof nature in the open. This Teberda Biosphere Reserve.
The climate is mild in the reserve, moderately humid, with cool summers and relativelywarm winter. According to the number of sunny days, and for its healing qualities it is superior to the climate of many world famous resorts. To reserve a typical microclimaticchanges: almost every valley slope, the summit is characterized by its microclimate. A complex mountain terrain Teberda Reserve led an exceptional variety of natural conditions and created an amazing wealth of flora. The latter also contributed to the reserve position at the crossroads of different botanical and geographical districtsbetween the Western and Central Caucasus. In a relatively small area of the reservegrows 1260 species of plants, of which 235 are endemic of the Caucasus. Of the floraof the reserve Teberdinsky in the Red Book includes 24 species of plants.
It is home to 43 species of mammals, among which one of the most typical representatives - West Caucasian tur, or Caucasian ibex. The peculiarity of these animals are large saber horn, reaching the old male 1 meter in length and 30 centimeters in diameter at the base and a surprisingly subtle adaptation to survival in the mountains. Heavy adult males weigh 150 pounds, easy to move up the steep rock walls, confidently moving rock slides, glaciers and snowfields, leaping wide cracks. This is facilitated by the structural features of their hooves, horn with soft pillows that are walking or jumping increases the friction between the surface of rocks and hooves. In the rock tour is almost inaccessible to predators: the gregarious lifestyle in a timely manner to help them escape from danger in the forbidding rocks and makes a difficult transition. However, during the winter of movement on the steep snow-covered slopes of the tours are often killed in avalanches. If these animals do not worry man, they go down to the limits of the forest belt, where the vegetation is well developed. More often than down in the winter.
In the reserve there are 170 species of birds. Of these, 87 species - breeding. In the spring, when the guests arrive the summer, and sedentary species of birds begin to breed, the forest reserve are a real bird kingdom. One of the most remarkable birds of the reserve - the Caucasian black grouse - endemic to the Caucasus. In addition to the Caucasus does not exist anywhere in the world. Caucasian black grouse inhabits a narrow strip of the timber, since his life is equally necessary as forest and grassland.
Teberda Reserve is one of the important bird areas of international importance. It noted 202 species of birds, which is about 80% of the avifauna of the Western Caucasus, and 56% of the avifauna of the Caucasus. Within the protected area nests of 90 species of birds. Bird populations basin. Teberda is mixed. In the forest zone is dominated by representatives of the European fauna of coniferous-deciduous forests - bullfinch, gray owl, green woodpecker and the Eurasian taiga - boreal owl, crossbill-Elovikov. In the mountain-meadow zone is dominated by species belonging to Central Asia (Tibet) type fauna: bearded, alpine chough, a large lentils, etc. They added: Mongolian-Tibetan view - chough, the Mongolian type - stove dancer and Mongol-Mediterranean species - Redstart, Nigella, mountain robin, etc. The role of the reserve to preserve habitats of rare representatives of the avifauna. On its territory mentioned 40 species of birds in need of protection (Annex C). Of these, 27 species recorded in the Red Book of Karachaevo-Cherkessia, 22 - in the Red Book of Russia, 7 - to the federal list of species that need special attention. Conservation status of the 13th of confirmed international agreements.
Alpine meadows of the reserve is very peculiar. On the windswept slopes and crests of the Alpine belt formed a kind of lichen heath. They are most similar to mountain tundra other mountain systems of Eurasia. The uniqueness of Teberda Reserve is also available on its territory of vast areas of alpine and subalpine meadows, not exposed to grazing for the past 60 years. Arrays of such meadows is not in any other reserve of the country. Unique and diverse as the community of Alpine carpet to mark the places of abundant snow accumulation in winter. These communities are highly vulnerable to grazing and immoderate severely degraded to non protected areas. Subalpine tall developed in support of good soil water and mineral elements. It consists of a large number of species that have a high aesthetic value due to large and numerous flowers and inflorescences. A special place is occupied by dwarf shrubs. They are vast arrays of springs, creeping juniper, and shrub heath.
The most varied alpine vegetation, which in floristic classification refers to the 11classes. Vegetation of screes, moraines, alluvial deposits and river gravels includesfloristic rich community of high-altitude zones. The most unique subnival talus groupswithin which there are many rare species of plants. Small areas in the subalpine and alpine zones occupy highland bog. They develop in wet stream, they contain many rare species of mosses and orchids. Unique and Community mountain streams. They are formed on the bottoms and banks of streams and small rivers, near springs withconstant current of cold water. Few vascular plants form a cover is sparse with a solidcover of moss.
Interest in the nature reserve on the part of tourists is huge: 700,000 people annually visit the sightseeing area. Even a walk in the nearest vicinity of the resort with minimal effort and time is of great interest. Perhaps no one of the numerous resorts in the country can not make so many instructive and fascinating tourist trips and excursions, both fromTeberda. The exceptional richness and diversity of natural conditions of the area and itstourism opportunities are unmatched. In the central farmstead in Teberda, for tourists and sightseers there is a museum of nature and the cages with wild animals. Tourists and sightseers who visited the reserve, take their stock of vigor and health, and most importantly - a great spiritual wealth, which generously gives perfectly preservedTeberdinsky preserve nature.